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Ionic Equations

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An ionic equation shows only the ions that participate in a chemical reaction producing a new substance that has a change in state; for example, a product that precipitates from two aqueous solution reactants.

Example 1
The reaction between soluble
lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 and soluble potassium iodide, KI, produces insoluble lead iodide, PbI2, which precipitates, and soluble potassium nitrate KNO3 (which remains as dissociated ions in the solution).

The chemical equation is written as
 
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → PbI2(s) 2KNO3(aq)  

The ionic equation for the above is

Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) → PbI2(s)

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → PbI2(s) 2KNO3(aq)

In the ionic equation, the dissociated aqueous lead
Pb2+ ion of the lead nitrate reactant is chosen because it changes to a precipitate.
The same goes for the dissociated aqueous iodide
I-(aq) ion.


Example 2

The reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate produces the
salt sodium chloride, carbon dioxide and water.

The chemical equation is written as

2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)
→  2NaCl(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)

The ionic equation is written as

2H+(aq) + CO32-(aq)  →  CO2(g) + H2O(l)


2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) →  2NaCl(aq) +  CO2(g) + H2O(l)


Example 3
The neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide produces the salt sodium chloride and water.

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) →  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

The ionic equation for the
neutralisation reaction can be written as

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) →  H2O(l)

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)
→  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)


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Persamaan ionik
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