+ suidaizhishi
五千年的历史在线
Timeline - Chinese History
(Please note that this is a Work-In-Progress Non-Commercial Project.)

As this is a long page, it might take a while to fully load.

Press Ctrl-F to search for a name, year or phrase on this page. Click on the Dynasty names to jump to the respective timelines.



Xia 夏朝







Shang 商朝






Zhou 周朝







Eastern Zhou 东周






Spring and Autumn Period 春秋时代






Warring States Period 战国















Qin 秦代







Han 汉代






Xin 新朝







Late Han 后汉







Three Kingdoms 三国






Western Jin 西晋






Eastern Jin 东晋







Sui






Tang 唐代






Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国






Song 宋代






Yuan 元朝






Ming 明代







Qing 清朝






People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国




















Elsewhere in The World

.. But before that, during the pre-Dynastic Age, there was the







Paleolithic Age 旧石器时代















1.7 Million
Years Ago

Yuanmou man
元谋人
first Homo erectus ever found
within boundaries of China

fossil remains were found in Yuanmou County
in Yunnan 云南










800,000
Years Ago -
1 Million
Years Ago

Yunxian Man
 
 
 
late Homo erectus - can
make simple tools and
hunt
 

Yunxian County - excavated in Xue Tang Liang Zi
in the Quyuan River estuary in Yun County,
Hubei Province 湖北省
 










700,000
Years Ago
 








600,000
Years Ago

 

Peking Man

 
 
北京猿人

 
 

Homo erectus pekinensis
discovered (1921) in Zhoukoudian 周口店
near Fangshan district 房山区  of Beijing


200,000
Years Ago















20,000
Years Ago
 
 
 

Evidence of pottery 陶器  in
Dayuan Town, Wannian County,
Shangrao City, Jiangxi Province
江西省上饶市万年县大源镇













14,000
Years Ago





(archaeological evidence)
human occupation of Rome









11,000
Years Ago

scroll to the right to see what happened
to the rest of the world



Star Carr - Mesolithic Site in Britain
 









10,000
Years Ago


The End of the
Paleolithic Age 旧石器时代




Evidence of cooking with pottery in Middle East
 










 








9,000-10,000
Years Ago
 

...  the start of the
Neolithic Age
新石器时代








 













Year
Main Event(s) Notes 1 Key People
Notes 2 Elsewhere in The World

     

 


(8000
Years Ago)



Domestication of pigs
 












6500 -
5500 BCE

Houli Culture
后李文化


Linzi District 临淄区
in Shandong 山东省










5300 -
4100 BCE

Beixin Culture
北辛文化


Shandong 山东省
 










5500-
3300 BCE
7000 y.a.

Hemudu neolithic culture
河姆渡文化
 


near Ningbo in Zhejiang
浙江省宁波市
 










5000-
3000 BCE
7000 y.a.

Yangshao (neolithic) Culture
仰韶文化
 
red and black pottery
 
 

Loess Plateau, Banpo
See also Banpo Museum 半坡 , in Xian 西安











5000-
3000 BCE

Majiabang Culture
马家浜文化


Zhejiang 浙江省
 










4100 -
2600 BCE

Dawenkou Culture
大汶口文化


North China
 










3800-
3300 BCE

Songze Culture
崧泽文化


Eastern China
 










3400-
2250 BCE
 

Liangzhu 良渚
neolithic culture of
Changjiang 长江 delta


Zhejiang 浙江省
 

2580-2560 BCE - period when the Khufu Pyramid is believed to have been built.

 









3300 -
2500 BCE

Majiayao culture
马家窑文化


Upper Yellow River 黄河 Valley
 










3000 BCE
 

The Start of the Bronze Age
青铜时代













2750 BCE
Pieces of silk created












2500 BCE
 

scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world



Stonehenge set in place
(late Neolithic)









2500 -
1700 BCE
 

Longshan Culture
龙山文化
 


Yellow River 黄河 Valley
- regarded as
Cradle of Chinese Civilisation





Potter's wheel;
Farming




2200 -
1600 BCE

Qijia Culture
齐家文化


upper 黄河 Yellow River Valley - region: eastern 青海 Qinghai
and 兰州 Lanzhou; one of the earliest bronze cultures










c. 1900BCE



Earthquake and major flood -
Northwestern China - 黄河 Huanghe
Yellow River region





c. 1900 BCE
 
 


Remains of villagers in the 喇家Lajia
Settlement were radiocarbon-dated
to this period

Noodles discovered
喇家文化 Lajia culture is linked
to the 齐家文化
Qijia Culture
Location: 民和县Minhe County, 海东市 Haidong Prefecture City
青海Qinghai province
 










1900 -
1500 BCE

Erlitou Culture
二里头文


Western Henan  河南









1900 -
1500 BCE

Yueshi Culture
岳石文化


Shandong 山东省
 










1510 -
1460 BCE

Erligang Culture
二里岗文化


North China Plain
 










1500-
1000 BCE

Xindian Culture
辛店文化


Bronze Age 青铜时代 culture in
Gansu 甘肃 and Qinghai 青海 province


























Year

Dynasty

Main Event(s)

Key
Achievements
Key
People
Notes

Elsewhere in the World
BCE 2500
 
 
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
三皇 五帝
 

  This Section before the Xia Dynasty
 is Mainly Legendary
============================
-- Assyrian Empire ca 2500BCE to 609BCE
-- 2580-2560 BCE - period when the Khufu Pyramid is believed to have been built.


 


 

        
三 皇The Three Noble Kings
 
 

   
 
燧人
Inventor of Fire (legendary)
 

   

伏羲
Founder of Chinese
governance



   



神农
agriculture and
herbal medicine
 

   
 


 

       
Five Emperors
五帝
 

2697-
2597

 
     
Yellow Emperor 黄帝



 
buried in the Mausoleum of Yellow Emperor
Huangling county  黄陵
in Yan'an 延安,
Shaanxi 陕西


 2513
-2435
      Zhuan Xu 颛顼
 
 





Di Ku or Emperor Ku 帝喾

great-grandson of Yellow Emperor 黄帝



2342
(2200)



Emperor Yao (4th Emperor)
Tang Yao 唐尧
second son of Di Ku 帝喾











2256




Traditional first date
for the 通书  almanac


According to the 书经 (The Book of History),
the 通书 (Ancient Almanac) has been in publication
since 2256




 





2256




Emperor Shun (5th Emperor)
虞舜
legendary emperor of great wisdom












         


         

2207          

~ 4200 y.a.          

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Start of the Dynasties














Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

2070 Xia
 


Start of Xia Dynasty 夏朝


late neolithic cultures


horse herding
carriages



Erhlitou Culture
二里头文化
in Yanshi county  偃师 in Luoyang 洛阳
debate if this was the site of the 夏朝 Xia Dynasty

  二里头文化 ==>
夏朝 Xia Dynasty




first dynasty to be recorded,
along the banks / valley of the Yellow 
River 黄河
/ Huanghe River Basin
黄河流域


Family or clan control started during this dynasty - a transition
from the "primitive" society. Introduction of slave system.
Aspects of social life still retained traces of primitive society.
 





* wine making
* ancient 3-legged
bronze wine vessel
/ wine goblet 斝 jiǎ

These drinking vessels 酒器 prevailed through the 商 Shang and
西周 Western Zhou periods












4200 y.a.



 

17 Kings
 
 
14 Generations



Capital: Dengfeng 登封
Today Dengfeng 登封 is under the jurisdiction of
Zhengzhou 郑州市 (the capital of Henan province 河南省


   

   

     
 


2100
 

has been recorded that Da Yu 大禹 used
chopsticks to eat his food 


大禹 Da Yu was revered as to have controlled/stopped floods
r
due to rising river waters 大禹治










2000
Noodles were made




     
   

2000
 

scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world



The beginning of Judaism
 









1642 -
1540

scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world



Minoan / Santorini Eruption(1628 BCE)






























King Jie 桀 (a tyrant and oppressor) was the 17th and last Xia ruler

1600          

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

c.1600

 



Shang


Start of Shang Dynasty 商朝
Some historians place that start date at
about 1553BCE




 

Shang Tang 商汤
overthrew the 夏 Xia Dynasty 
and established the 商
Shang
Dynasty

 

 
Capital: Bo (Shangqiu 商丘 in Henan 河南)
and Yin 殷 (Anyang 安阳 in Henan 河南 )
 
The Shang Dynasty 商代 is said to have marked the middle of
China's Bronze Age
oracle-bone writing 殷契

civilization based on agriculture, hunting , animal husbandry 
bronze work 青铜 , jade 玉
chariots, yoke saddle
ancient three-legged round (occasionally four-legged
and rectangular) cauldron with two ear-shaped handles


1587

Death of 商汤 Shang Tang

Founder of the 商 Shang Dynasty











1576
 

planetary alignment which is said to mark
the rise of the 商Shang Dynasty













1525


相 Xiang was flooded

today 内黄 Neihuang in
河南 Henan




1525


Capital moved to 耿 Geng
 
today 河津 Hejin in
山西 Shanxi












1500  
please scroll to the right to see what
happened in other parts of the world
      The beginning of Hinduism



      
   


   please scroll to the right to see what
happened in other parts of the world

    1458BCE - Egypt conquered Palestine
1401BCE - 1353BCE Reign of Amenhotep III

     

  1350 BCE - first recorded smallpox epidemic
1350BCE- King of Jerusalem begged Pharaoh Akhenaten for help
to defend his kingdom

     
    1300 BCE- End of Indus Valley Civilization


 

 

 

           






n


 

   











mid 1300
- 1200
 
 


writing first appeared
toward the end of the
Shang Dynasty 商朝


oracle bones 甲骨文
 
 










c 1300
(or 1290)
 








Yin





Birth of 盘庚 Pan Geng









 
19th legendary King of
商 Shang










Reputed for moving the Shang capital to 殷 Yin

Previous capital: 西亳 Bo
(
商丘 Shangqiu in 河南 Henan )
to
Yin (安阳 Anyang  in Henan 河南)
today:
Yin (Shang) Ruins  殷墟
Period starting from Pan Geng 般庚
is sometimes known as the
Yin Dynasty -
the Golden Age of 商 Shang Dynasty











1250


Start of the reign of King Wu Ding
武丁

 
 











       



c. 1200
 
 


Death of 妇好 Fu Hao
 
 


妇好 Fu Hao, consort of King 武丁
Wu Ding - 妇 Fu means Lady, Hao
was her name, female Chinese
general late Shang Dynasty 商朝
Legend has it that 妇好 Fu Hao was a warrior and general and
captivated the attention of 武丁 King Wu Ding
 
 


1192
 

Death and end of the reign of King Wu 
Ding 武丁













1157
 

please scroll to the right to see what
happened in other parts of the world




Death of Pharaoh Ramesses V of Egypt earliest physical evidence of smallpox
on mummified body (some historians recorded the year as 1145BCE)









1152
 

Birth of King Wen of Zhou 周文王 's reign
 

Founder and 1st King of the
周 Zhou Dynasty
father of 周武王
 










1105
Birth of Emperor Di Xin 帝辛













1075
 

Start of the reign of King Zhou of Shang
紂王 /
Di Xin 帝辛

Emperor Di Xin 帝辛
last ruler - tyrant



























1046
 
 

Death of King Zhou of Shang
紂王  / Di Xin 帝辛
Zhou Dynasty claims Mandate of Heaven














1046
 

End of Shang Dynasty 商朝
 -1027BC
 
  Legend: Jizi


refused to surrender - founded one of the earliest Korean states
 



3116 y.a.
 



     

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World



















Period of transition from 商 Shang to
周 Zhou










 









1099
 

Start of King Wen of Zhou 周文王 's reign
 


Capital: Haojing 镐京
(near Xi'an and Fenjing)










(1066)
 

Some websites state this as the start of
the Zhou 周 Dynasty













1059
 

Zhou seers witnessed a 5-planet
conjunction in the northwestern sky


Such alignment with planets on either side of the sun
occurs about once every 516 years.










1056
 

Death and End of King Wen of Zhou
周文王's reign


1st King of the 周 Zhou - also
recognized as 1st King

 










1046
 
 
 
 
 

Zhou

Battle of Muye
牧野之战
Shang dominance over Wei River
and Yellow River ended
 

 
Mandate of Heaven 天命
doctrine used to rule
the dynasty

周武王 (aka the
Martial King) is regarded
as the first King of Western Zhou
Dynasty (birth date not det. said
to be 1103BCE)
START OF 西周 Western Zhou
one of the longest dynasties in China
(ca 1122 BC -> 221 BC)

 
Ji family in control of this dynasty -
39 family members ruled during this period



1046
 
 
 

Start of the reign of 周武王 Zhou Wu
(personal name: Ji Fa 姬发) 's reign
 
 

Zhou Wu 周武王 :
* brother of 周公
Zhou Gong
(Duke of Zhou)
* Father of 周成王
King Cheng/
姬诵 Ji Song
It has been suggested that 周武王 King Zhou Wu
invented the 象棋 Xiangqi Chinese Chess when he
coached his army in military strategy in overthrowing
the 商 Shang Dynasty
 


















1043
 

Death and the end of reign of 周武王
King
Zhou Wu


周武王 Zhou Wu is also known as
the Martial King



    feudalistic system
lesser lords owing allegiance to
greater lords

 


天命 -  political theory asserted that Heaven,
was primarily interested in the affairs of man
The Emperor must rule fairly and justly.
Heaven will remove the mandate from the ruler


   













      customs, laws and
institutions
 
  The concepts of the 天命 and 命
(physical order of the universe)
combined make the Dao 道  (Way of Heaven)










1042



 

Start of the reign of 周成王 King Cheng/
姬诵 Ji Song



Since 周成王 King Cheng
was very young, he was
helped by 周公 Zhou
Gong (Duke of Zhou)

周公 Zhou Gong (Duke of Zhou)
established 2 capitals:
- 宗周 Zongzhou (鎬京 Haojing)
in the West
- 成周 Chengzhou in the East
It's been recorded that 孔子 Kongzi(Confucius) 551BCE had
deep respect for 周公 Duke of Zhou and often dreamt of him.
(Today many Chinese still use the phrase: I'm going to 与周公下棋
play chess
Duke of Zhou with to mean "I am going to sleep.")
 










1021


End of reign of 周成王 King Cheng/
姬诵 Ji Song





   

 


1000
 

scroll to the right to see what happened
to the rest of the world



-- Must Farm 1000 - 800 BCE (Britain's Pompeii)
Bronze Age









911


scroll to the right to see what happened
to the rest of the world



-- End of the Assyrian (also Neo-Assyrian) Empire










795
Birth of King You 周幽王





















781
 
 

Start of the reign of the 12th King of
the Zhou 周 Dynasty
 

the 12th King of the
Zhou 周 Dynasty -
King You 周幽王











780
 
 
 
 

Earthquake hit 关中 Guanzhong
 
 
 
 


Guanzhong 关中
the lower valley of the Wei River 渭河
(Modern day Shaanxi 陕西)
The earthquake was seen as an omen for the end of the
Western Zhou 西周


       



771

 
W Zhou
西周
xī zhōu
 
Expulsion of Zhou from the
Wei River 渭河 Valley

End of Western Zhou 西周
  The death and the end of the reign
of the 12th King of the
Zhou 周 Dynasty
King You 周幽王
 









Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes
Elsewhere in The World

770

 


 
 
Eastern
 Zhou


dōng zhōu
Start of Eastern Zhou 东周
 






 
    Capital: Luoyang 洛阳
 (in Henan 河南 ) in the East
 





 


2775 y.a.   decline of feudal aristocracy from bronze to iron  


      use of money    









    Age of Philosophy
The Hundred Schools of Thought
诸子百家 zhū zǐ bǎi jiā
 
 

 
various schools of
philosophers / thinkers
during
late Zhou 周
Spring and Autumn
Warring States Period
春秋战国时代
 
   770 BCE - 220 BCE
 























Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes
Elsewhere in The World

722







 



Eastern Zhou (770-221 BC)
东周

Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC)
春秋时代

Warring States (475-221 BC)
战国时代

春秋战国时代

   Five dukes









 
feudal states fought against each other









  








Birth of Thales of Ionia - Father of geometry 几何学










 
 
  Birth and Death of 老子Lao Zi
 
道德经 Dao de Jing


Founder of Daoism 道教
- advocated a life of simplicity and harmony with Nature


     
 


 
   
 
Thales of Ionia - Father of geometry 几何学

 586


  Scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world
 
   
Destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem and the city
by the Babylonians - led by Nebuchadnezzar II
Also start of the Babylonian captivity









551

 


 


 
   Birth of 孔子Kong Zi
 








 
Confucianism - ethical &
philosophical system







 
 

 



 


 
- advocated that people should treat each other with mutual
respect Knowing others is wisdom;
Knowing the self is enlightenment.

Five Classics 五经
1) Book of Odes / Songs / Poetry 诗经
2) Book of History 书经
3) Book of Changes I Ching 易经
4) Book / Classic of Rites 礼记
5) Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋志










550-
540

Birth of 孙子 Sunzi
 

孙子 Sunzi born in State of
Qi but moved to State of Wu
孙子兵 法 Sunzi's Art of War
 
Aesop - Greek story teller










541
 

The first floating bridge was built across
黄河 Huanghe The Yellow River



Ref: Chinese Bridges: Living Architecture From China's Past
- Ronald G. Knapp


539



Scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world



The Persians conquered Mesopotamia
 





 


   







   



         


         


         


         




 
 


522
 

Birth of 冉求 Ran Qiu
 

Famous scholar and disciple of
孔子 Kongzi (Confucius)
He was also a military commander and statesman
 


522


Scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world



Start of the reign of Darius I or Darius the Great
the Persian King









505



Birth of Zeng Zi 曾子 zēng zǐ
 
 

Zeng Zi 曾子 zēng zǐ

 

Philosopher and student of Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ
presumed author of a large portion of Great Learning 大学
and important compiler of the Analects 论语










500
 
 
 
 
 

Death of Yanzi / Yanying 晏婴 

 
 
 
 

Yanying 晏婴
- thinker, politician and states-
man of Qi State 齐国
protagonist of the book
晏子春秋 "The Spring & Autumn
Annals of Master Yan"
Qi State (of Western Zhou 西周) existed during the Warring States
(战国) - centered in today's Shandong 山东.
 
 
 
 


















494
 

War between State of Wu 吴 and
the State of Yue 越













490
 

 
 

孔子 Kongzi/Confucius traveled from 
蔡Cai to 叶(Ye)邑 to discuss with 叶公
Ye Gong/ the Duke of Ye about politics
and moral issues of integrity


蔡Cai was a vassal state during the 春秋战国时期 Spring & Autumn
and the Warring States period
 
  


490


Scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world




Battle of Marathon - Persian invasion of Greece
Victory: Greek/Athenian army: 10,000 defeated the army of King Darius









481/
475

  End of Spring and Autumn Period
春秋时代
    481BCE - according to Spring and Autumn Annals
475BCE - generally accepted date










479
 

State of Chen 陳国 annexed
by State of Chu 楚国





479
Death of Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ












476
 

Start of the reign of 姬仁 Ji Ren / 周元王
King Yuan of Zhou






















Sword of Gou Jian
越王勾践剑践

春秋五霸
the Five Hegemons
of the Spring and Autumn period

齐桓公 Duke Huan of Qi
晋文公 Duke Wen of Jin
楚庄王 King Zhuang of Chu
宋襄公 Duke Xiang of Song
秦穆公 Duke Mu of Qin
吴王阖闾 King Helu of Wu

King Gou Jian of Yue
越王勾践



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

475
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Start of Warring States Period
战国
 
 
 

 
  Seven overlords
 
 
  
 


 

474
 

Shu emissaries present gifts to Qin court
first recorded contact between Shu and
Qin





















469


End of the the reign of 姬仁 Ji Ren /
周元王 King Yuan of Zhou













468
 


 

Birth of Mo Zi 墨子




Mohism School founded
 
Mo Zi 墨子 condemned wars and called for
"Love for all" (advised people to consider their obligations
to all fellow humans)



 
     

450

Fall of 缯国 the Kingdom (State) of Zeng


The state of destroyed by the 越国 Kingdom of Yue


450


scroll to the right to see what happened
to other parts of the world



Hippocrates (the western world's first physician)
proposed that emotions originate from the brain


447


scroll to the right to see what happened
to other parts of the world




Start of the building of the Parthenon in Athens
 









438


scroll to the right to see what happened
to other parts of the world



The contruction of Parthenon completed
 









436

Death of Zeng Zi 曾子












433
 
 

The chime bells Bianzhong 编钟
of Marquis Yi of Zeng 曾侯乙编钟
were made


See: Year 1978 when it was unearthed
 
 







 

407

Birth of 秦越人 Qin Yue Ren
扁鹊 Bian Que
Famous doctor











395
 

Birth of 杨朱 Yang Zhu
 

philosopher early 战国 Warring
States period











390
 

Birth of Shang Yang 商鞅
 

Shang Yang 商鞅
 
Legalist,scholar, philosopher, politician
statesman and reformer - State of Qin 秦










387
 

Shu and Qin troops battle near
Hanzhong on upper Han River













381
 

Birth of Duke Xiao of Qin 秦孝公
Qin Xiaogong













376
Death of Mo Zi 墨子  













  
 




372
 

Birth of Meng Zi 孟子


Meng Zi 孟子
 
scholar of Confucianism
"love one's family; love the people; love all living things in the world"










369
Birth of Zhuang Zi 庄子

Zhuang Zi 庄子 important interpreter of Daoism 道教









362
 

Start of the reign of the Duke Xiao of Qin
秦孝公 Qin Xiaogong













359
 
 


Duke Xiao of Qin 秦孝公 Qin Xiaogong
convened a court meeting on reforms in
which
Shang Yang 商鞅 attended


Legalist,scholar, philosopher,
politician, statesman and reformer
- State of Qin 秦











356
 

(356-338) Centralising of Qin
under Shang Yang 商鞅





356
 

scroll to the right to see what happened
to other parts of the world



Birth of Alexander the Great 亚历山大大帝
 









340
 
 

Birth of Qu Yuan 屈原 
 
 

Qu Yuan 屈原 -
statesman and poet of the
Kingdom of Chu 楚国
composer of the poem 离骚 - in the collection Songs of Chu
楚辞
 










338
Death of Shang Yang 商鞅





338
 

Death of Duke Xiao of Qin 秦孝公
Qin Xiaogong













338
 
 

Birth of Queen Dowager Xuan
宣太后

Queen Dowager Xuan 宣太后
aka  Mi Yue 芈月











335
 

Death of 杨朱 Yang Zhu
 

philosopher during the early 战国
Warring States period











334



China was made up of 7 states/kingdoms
楚 Chu, 韩 Han, 齐 Qi, 秦 Qin, 魏 Wei,
燕 Yan and 赵 Zhao


Historians call the seven powerful states:
战国七雄
 


334
 

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to other parts of the world



Alexander the Great set out to conquer the Persian
Empire









332
 

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to other parts of the world



Alexander the Great 亚历山大大帝 invaded Egypt









323
 

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to other parts of the world



Death of Alexander the Great 亚历山大大帝
Macedonian Ptolemy became satrap of Egypt 









316
 
 

Shu state 蜀 was conquered by
Qin state 秦
Construction of Chengdu 成都













314
 
 
 
 

Construction of Chaotianmen
朝天门
 
 
 
Meeting of Jialing River
嘉陵江 and
长 江 Yangtze River

Chaotianmen 朝天门 can be translated as
"Gate to Seeking An Audience with the Emperor"
 
 
 


314
 
 
 

Late Kaiming King's son Marquis
Yaotong ruled together with a
Qin 秦国 governor.
 













313




Birth of 荀子 Xunzi





philosopher, Confucian thinker

 

One of the many teachings of 荀子 Xunzi  was : "Musical
education empowers minds to reach a state of purity. With music
and rituals, people are infused with more logical, intelligent and
peaceful thoughts."










311


Official Chen Zhuang revolted and killed
Marquis Yaotong













310

Death of 秦越人 Qin Yue Ren
扁鹊 Bian Que
Famous doctor











307
 
 

Queen Dowager Xuan 宣太后 /
Mi Yue 芈月 became de facto
ruler for Qin state 秦国













305
 

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to other parts of the world



Start of the Ptolemaic Empire
Egypt under this empire









c. 300
 

please scroll to the right to see what
happened in other parts of the world



Use of chariots in Britain


























 
     

289

Death of Meng Zi 孟子












286

Death of Zhuang Zi 庄子












283
 

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happened in other parts of the world



The Library of Alexandria was founded









280
Birth of Han Fei 韩非

Legalist philosopher










279


The Dian 滇 Kingdom was
established













278
 
 

Death of Qu Yuan 屈原  
Legend has it that he drowned in the
River Miluo 汨罗江

Hunan 湖南


Qu Yuan 屈原 -
statesman and poet of the
Kingdom of Chu 楚国

composer of the poem 离骚 - in the collection Songs of Chu 楚辞












270
 

End of Queen Dowager Xuan's reign
宣太后













265
 

Death of Queen Dowager Xuan
宣太后






















259
 
 
 

Birth of Prince Ying Zheng 嬴政
(
Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇)













257
 
 

Birth of Zhao Tuo 趙佗
 
 

ZhaoTuo 趙佗
First king of Nanyue 南越
General during Qin 秦 Dynasty











256
Birth of Liu Bang 刘邦












256

 

Construction of Dujiangyan
都江堰


Li Bing 李冰
- governor of Shu 蜀 shǔ

Father 李冰 lǐ bīng and Son 李二郎 hydraulic engineers
深淘滩,浅做堰
Dig deep the channels but keep the weirs (spillways) shallow.










251
 
 

Reported birth of Zhang Liang
張良
 

strategist and statesman
chief counselor of

Liu Bang 刘邦
one of the "Three Heroes of the
early Han Dynasty"
 










247
 

Ying Zheng 嬴政 became
King of Qin 秦













238
 
 
 

Death of 荀 子Xun Zi
 

 

philosopher, Confucian thinker
 
 
 
One of the many teachings of 荀子 Xunzi  was : "Musical
education empowers minds to reach a state of purity. With music
and rituals, people are infused with more logical, intelligent and
peaceful thoughts."


















233
Death of Han Fei 韩非
Legalist philosopher










232
 

Birth of Xiang Yu 项羽


(warlord of Chu -
Xiang Yu 项羽)











229
 

Birth of Qin Er Shi 秦二世 son of
Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇






 
     


226
 


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to other parts of the world



Year the Palenque ruins have been dated back to so far
 









223
 

The state of Chu 楚国  overthrown
by the State of Qin 秦国













221

Zhou

End of Eastern Zhou / Warring States
Period
d
     









Year Dynasty Notes 01 Key Achievements Key People
Notes 02
Elsewhere in The World

221
 
 




 
Qin



China Proper was unified and
the Qin Dynasty 秦代 begins

 




 
  Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇






Capital: Chang 'an 长安 near  Xian 西安市



 
 
 
 
  


    Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇

became the First Emperor


 
forced imposition of
common system of
writing; legalism
state philosophy

Lesser Seal writing
Meng Tian 蒙恬 -
General of Great Wall



 
 

     
Li Si - 李斯 Prime Minister /
Chancellor
 
 

     
Zhao Gao 趙高 - eunuch  









211


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in other parts of the world




Death of Ptolemy III and the start of Ptolemy IV's reign of Egypt
 









210
 

Death of 秦始皇 Qin Shi Huang
 

Qin Er Shi 秦二世 (Hu Hai)
became the Second Emperor











209
 

大泽乡起义
Chen Sheng Wu Guang uprising


This uprising is said to have led the way for
the rise of the 汉 Han Dynasty (See 206BCE)










208

Li Si's 李斯 execution




208

Power of 趙高 Zhao Gao increased













207
 

Zi Ying 子嬰 became the third and
last Emperor of
Qin





207
 

Battle of Julu 巨鹿县
 
Xiang Yu 项羽 's
Chu defeated Qin army















 
The Great Wall


 
 
The Age of sculpture - high brush used in writing;
beginning of literacy


   
    burning of classics

   





























206


End of Qin 秦代    

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World
BC 206


   
 
 
Han



Start of Western Han 西汉









founder:
Liu Bang 刘邦
He ruled as the first Han Emperor
reign name: Han Gaozu
汉高祖刘邦




conflict between Xiang Yu 项羽
 and Liu Bang 刘邦
 
Western Han 206 BCE to 9 BCE with the capital
Changan 长安





 










 



204
 
 

Start of the 南越 Nanyue Kingdom aka
Nam Viet / Southern Yue
 

ZhaoTuo 趙佗
First king of Nanyue 南越
General during Qin 秦 Dynasty
covered Guangdong 广东, Guangxi 广西, Hainan 海南,
Hong Kong 香港, Macau 澳门, northern Vietnam 越南
and southern Fujian 福建










202
 
 
 
 
 

Strife between
Chu and Han
Death of Xiang Yu 项羽
Start of the reign of
Liu Bang 刘邦

warlord of Chu
Xiang Yu 项羽
 
 
 
Battle of Gaixia 垓下之战
 
 
 
 


202
 

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Start of the Kingdom of Numidia 努米底亚王国
 









c 200



A tribe of people from 云南 Yunnan moved
southward to today Myanmar -> Pyu
people





















195
 

End of reign and the death of
Liu Bang 刘邦













189
 

Death of Zhang Liang 張良
 

chief counselor of
Liu Bang刘邦











179
 
 

Birth of Dong Zhongshu
董仲舒
 


Dong Zhongshu 董仲舒 was a philosopher / scholar /
statesman - responsible for establishing / promoting
Confucianism as system of values in Western Han;
civil service examinations










175
 
 

Birth of Zhao Mo 趙昩
 


Zhao Mo 趙昩 is the grandson
of Zhao Tuo 趙佗. He is the 2nd
King of Nanyue 南越











169


Birth of 司马谈 Sima Tan

Historian & expert in
celestial studies
father of 司马迁 Sima Qian
 
started the 史记 Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian)
completed by his son 司马迁 Sima Qian










164
 

(Est.) Birth of Zhang Qian 張騫
 

"trailblazer of the Silk Road"
 
official and diplomat , envoy who returned to China
with information about Central Asia










157
 

Birth of the Emperor Wu of Han /
Han Wudi汉武帝(漢武帝)


Emperor Han Wudi 汉武帝 was born in Chang'an 长安











145

 

Birth of Sima Qian
司马迁
 
Shiji 史记
Records of the
Grand Historian
Sima Qian 司马迁
 
 
Read about Sima Qian 司马迁 here.
 
 


145
 

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Battle of Antioch - Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Empire (today Syria)
Victory: Ptolemaic

           


 




 



141
 

Han Wudi 汉武帝 begins his reign


  He reigned for 54 years (141BCE - 87BCE)
- considered the most glorious period of Han Dynasty 汉代


140

Jianyuan 建元 Era
Jianyuan 建元 Era (140BCE-135BCE)

140


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Simon Maccabaeus crowned king of Judea
 









138
 

 
 
 
 

張騫 Zhang Qian set off to the Western
Regions (today - 新疆 Xinjiang and parts
of Central Asia)


 
 

On assignment by Emperor
汉武帝 Han Wudi

 
 
 
 
His mission: Unite the 大月氏 Western Regions people against the
匈奴 Xiongnu / Huns whose preceding chieftain had been killed.
(The leader of the 匈奴 Xiongnu / Huns (Chanyu) had further
humiliated  the 大月氏 Western Regions people by drinking wine
from the skull of the dead chieftain he had killed - using it as his
"goblet".)











137
 
 

Start of the reign of Zhao Mo 趙昩
 
 

Zhao Mo 趙昩 is the grandson
of Zhao Tuo 趙佗. He is the 2nd
King of Nanyue 南越











134

Yuanguang 元光 Era
Yuanguang 元光 Era (134BCE -129BCE)









128

Yuanshuo 元朔 Era
Yuanshuo 元朔 Era (128BCE - 123BCE)









124
 
 

Death and End of the reign of Zhao Mo
趙昩
 

Zhao Mo 趙昩 is the grandson
of Zhao Tuo 趙佗. He is the 2nd
King of Nanyue 南越
His mausoleum is located in Guangzhou 广州
See the discovery of the tomb in 1983CE
 










122

Yuanshou 元狩 Era
Yuanshou 元狩 Era (122BCE - 117BCE)









116

Yuanding 元鼎 Era
Yuanding 元鼎 Era (116BCE - 111BCE)









114
Death of Zhang Qian 張騫 zhāng qiān
"trailblazer of the Silk Road"


       
 

111
 

Dunhuang 敦煌 Commandery (district
under control of a commander) est'd





111
Jiuquan 酒泉 founded as a military post












110

Yuanfeng 元封 Era
Yuanfeng 元封 Era (110BCE - 105BCE)









110


儋耳 Dan'er Commandery and 珠崖
Zhuya Commandery were set up
海南 Hainan





110


Death of 司马谈 Sima Tan


father of 司马迁 Sima Qian

started the 史记 Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian)
completed by his son 司马迁 Sima Qian










109


 

The Kingdom of Dian 滇王国
officially became a vassal state
of the Han Dynasty 汉代


General 郭昌 Guo Chang
 

 
General Guo Chang 郭昌 was sent by Emperor Wu
Han Wudi 汉武帝 to Yunnan 云南 to set up the
Yizhou commandery in Jinning, Dianchi county
滇池县晋宁市










106


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Birth of Pompey the Great in Rome










105
 
 

Marriage alliance between 刘细君 Liu
Xijun (aka 烏孫公主 the Princess of
Wusun) and the King of Wusun

刘细君 Liu Xijun was a princess
of the Han Dynasty.
 
The marriage strengthened the alliance between the Han
Dynasty and Wusun - especially to fight the
匈奴 Xiongnus  










104

Taichu 太初 Era
Taichu 太初 Era (104BCE - 101BCE)

104
 
 

Death of Dong Zhongshu
董仲舒













100

Tianhan 天汉 Era
Tianhan 天汉 Era (100BCE - 97BCE)









96

Taishi 太始 Era
Taishi 太始 Era (96BCE - 93BCE)









92

Zhenghe 征和 Era
Zhenghe 征和 Era (92BCE - 89BCE)









91
 
 

Sima Qian 司马迁 completed The
Records of the Grand Historian
史记

Sima Qian 司马迁

 











88

Houyuan 后元 Era
Houyuan 后元 Era  (88BCE - 87 BCE)









87
 

End of the reign of
Han Wudi 汉武帝













85
 
 

Death of Sima Qian
司马迁
 

Sima Qian 司马迁 author of the
The Records of the Grand
Historian 史记











77

Birth of 京房 Jingfang

西汉 Western Han scholar



























75
 

Birth of 汉元 Emperor Yuan
 

Emperor Yuan 汉元帝
Reign: 48BCE - 33BCE











63


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Birth of Caesar Augustus
 









62
 

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Archaeological digs in Britain - metal coins dated to 62 BCE
 









55


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First Roman invasion of Britain (Julius Caesar)
 









54
 

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Second Roman invasion of Britain (Julius Caesar)
 









48
 

Start of Emperor 汉元帝 Yuan's reign




Emperor 汉元帝 Yuan applied 孔子 Kongzi's 
teachings / Confucianism during his reign


48
 -47

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Siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar and the destruction/partial destruction
(burning) of the Great Library of Alexandria









46




Emperor 汉元帝 Yuan combined the
儋耳 Dan'er Commandery and 珠崖
Zhuya Commandery to become
Zhulu County













44


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Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome
 

40
 

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in other parts of the world



End of the Kingdom of Numidia 努米底亚王国
 









37

Death of 京房 Jingfang

西汉 Western Han scholar



37


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in other parts of the world



--- Start of King Herod I  / Herod the Great 's reign as King of Judea
-- The Kingdom of Goguryeo (also called Goryeo) was founded









33
 

Death of Emperor 汉元帝Yuan
and end of his reign













30


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in other parts of the world



End of the Ptolemaic Kingdom; Death by suicide of Cleopatra ;
Roman conquest of Egypt








CE   
===============================================================================================================================================




















c 1st Century CE - 皇帝八十一难经 The Yellow Emperor's
Classic of 81 Medical Problems was published
One of four well known classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine










2
 

Imperial census registered population
of China to be almost 58 million


approximately 1/3 of est. population of the world
 











 

 

Birth of Ban Biao 班彪


 
started the
汉书 Book of Han
aka Han History
 
Father of
Ban Gu 班固
Ban Chao 班超
Ban Zhao 班昭 - daughter
But credit for the Book of Han / Han History 汉书
is given to Ban Biao 班彪 's son
Ban Gu 班固
 

CE 9   End of Western Han      

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People
Notes
Elsewhere in The World
CE 9






 
Xin




 
Start of Xin 新朝






  Wang Mang 王莽

overthrew the
汉代 Han Dynasty
and founded the Xin 新朝


 The character 新 means new / fresh








9

 

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in other parts of the world
 



Battle of Teutoburg Forest / Varian Disaster
Alliance of Germanic tribes vs the Roman Empire
Victory: the Germanic peoples









11
 

Major floods caused by 黄河 Huang He
The Yellow River













14
 


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in other parts of the world
 



-- Start of the reign of Tiberius Caesar Augustus
(2nd Roman Emperor)
-- census reported 5 million residents

















23 Xin End of 新朝 Xin      

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

25
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eastern
 Han
or
Later Han



 
Start of Eastern Han 东汉
Later Han 后汉
Luoyang 洛阳 was established
as the capital
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
    Capital:
Capital: Luoyang 洛阳
 (in Henan 河南) in the East





 






32
 








 

Birth of Ban Gu 班固




 
Birth of Ban Chao 班超


 
 
completed the 汉书 Book
of Han aka Han History

started by his father
Ban Biao 班彪
 
renowned military man
- Western Regions /
- The Silk Road
base:
咸阳市 Xianyang

咸阳市 Xianyang prefecture level city in Shaanxi


 










33
 

The rebellion of 公孙述 Gongsun Shu 
against the (Eastern) 汉 Han Dynasty


an army was raised to capture 巫县 Wuxian county
in 四川 Sichuan province


33
 

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Jesus was crucified
(est by scholars to be bet 30CE to 33CE)









45
 

 
 

Birth of Ban Zhao 班昭
 
 

 

daughter of 班彪 Ban Biao

sister of Ban Gu 班固 and
Ban Chao 班超
Code of Conduct for Women

 

 










54


Death of Ban Biao 班彪

started the 汉书 Book
of Han aka Han History




54


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Start of Nero's reign (5th Roman Emperor)









58
 
 

Birth of Xu Shen 许慎

 

author of Shuowen Jiezi
说文解字
 
first comprehensive Chinese character dictionary
the first to use the principle of organization by sections
with shared components called radicals 部首


61

Birth of Cai Lun 蔡伦 - inventor of paper









 


69
 
 

The 永昌郡 Yongchang Commandery
was established
 
bet.
澜沧江-怒江
(Lancangjiang
& Nujiang)




69


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Start of the reign of Vespasian
The Coliseum was built during his reign









70
 

Major floods caused by Huang He
黄河 The Yellow River





70



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in other parts of the world




The Siege of Jerusalem by the Romans
The city and the Temple Mount destroyed - thousands of Jews killed
led by Titus Caesar Vespasianus









75
 

Introduction of 佛教 Buddhism
into China









 
   

78
 
 

Birth of Zhang Heng 张衡
- one of the world's first astronomers
 
developed the
armillary sphere
 
Zhang Heng 张衡
polymath scientist and statesman
from Nanyang 南阳
It is reported that he applied hydraulics in the
workings of an armillary sphere











79



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Eruption of Vesuvius









92
 
 

Death of 班固 Ban Gu
 
 
credited for completing
the 汉书 Book of Han
aka Han History汉书












111
 
 


the reported year of
the completion of
汉书 Hanshu












116
 

张衡 Zhang Heng was appointed an official
at the Emperor's court in 洛阳 Luoyang













117
 
 

Death of 班昭 Ban Zhao

 
credited for completing
the Book of Han aka
Han History 汉书












121


 





1st Chinese character
dictionary - Shuowen
说文解字 presented to
Emperor An of Han 漢安帝

 

with about
10,000 entries

 
 
 
 
 
Xu Shen 许慎
author / compiler
 
 
 
 
 

See also:
Kang Xi (康熙 ) dictionary of the Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911)
康熙字典 (~ 47,000 character entries)

Zhonghua Zihai 中华字海
the most comprehensive Chinese character dictionary
(over 85 000 character entries)


121

Death of 蔡伦 - inventor of paper





121

Xiongnu 匈奴 expelled by Han 汉 forces












127
 

Birth of Zheng Xuan 郑玄
 

Confucian scholar, master of
classics, politician











132


张衡 Zhang Heng invented the first
seismoscope to detect earthquakes.













139
 
 

Death of Zhang Heng 张衡 - one of the
world's first astronomers
 

Zhang Heng 张衡 polymath
scientist and statesman
from Nanyang 南阳
It is reported that he applied hydraulics in the workings of an
armillary sphere
 










140
Birth of Hua Tuo 华陀

physician

成语 Chengyu story - 对症下药
study a problem & take appropriate steps to tackle it










150
 

Birth of 张仲景
 

Author of 金匮要略 Synopsis
of the Golden Chamber











155
 

Birth of Cao Cao 曹 操
(Courtesy name: Mengde 孟德)

Cao Cao 曹操 - poet, warlord,
statesman
credited for founding the Cao Wei 曹魏 kingdom
See Three Kingdoms 三国










161
Birth of Liu Bei 刘备/ 劉備












160-162
Birth of Guan Yu 关羽















     

166
 

A messenger from Rome arrived at
the capital, 洛阳 Luoyang

Dispatched by Roman Emperor
Antoninus Pius (86CE-161CE)
Event was recorded in the 后汉书 History of the Eastern Han
Dynasty (writer: 范晔 Fan Ye)










176
Birth of Emperor Liu Bian 刘辩












179
 

Birth of 司马懿 Sima Yi
 

司马懿 Sima Yi - minister / warlord
of 曹魏 Cao Wei state
Grandfather of 司马炎 Sima Yan
 










181


Birth of Zhuge Liang 诸葛亮

Courtesy name:
孔明
Kongming




181

Birth of Emperor Xian 汉献帝

Personal name: Liu Xie 劉協





184
 
 

Yellow Turban Rebellion or
Yellow Scarves Rebellion
黄巾起义













187
 

Birth of Cao Pi 曹丕
 

Cao Pi 曹丕 - first king of the
Kingdom of Cao Wei 曹魏
See Three Kingdoms 三国
 










189 
 
 

Emperor Liu Bian 刘辩
Emperor Shao 汉少帝
was deposed by 董卓

Dongzhuo 董卓 - military
general and warlord
 



189
 

Start and end of the reign of
Emperor Liu Bian 刘辩





189
 

Liu Xie 劉協 succeeded the
throne as Emperor Xian 汉献帝 

Last emperor of the Eastern
Han Dynasty











190
Death of Emperor Liu Bian 刘辩


poisoned by Dongzhuo 董卓









192
 

Death of 董卓 - military
general and warlord













196
 
 
 

Cao Cao 曹操
moved capital from
Luoyang 洛阳  to
Xuchang 许昌

Emperor Xian 汉献帝
 
 
 
Xuchang 许昌 was Cao Cao 曹操
defacto capital during Eastern Han 东汉王朝
 
 










200

Battle of Baima 白马之战

Cao Cao 曹操 vs
YuanShao袁绍
Guan Yu (with Cao Cao 曹操 ) killed Yan Liang 颜良
(military general of
YuanShao 袁 绍)


200
 

Battle of Guandu 官渡之战
 

Cao Cao 曹操 vs
YuanShao 袁绍
Cao Cao 曹操 was victorious
  


200

Death of Zheng Xuan 郑玄

Death of Zheng Xuan 郑玄



200



Scroll to the right to see what happened
in other parts of the world
 



Edessa (in Turkey today) Abgar VIII converted to Christianity
and made it the official religion of his city (at least 100 years before the
Romans converted









202


Death of YuanShao 袁绍
 
Battle of Guandu
官渡之战












205
 

End of Yellow Turban Rebellion
黄巾起义













207


Birth of Liu Shan 刘禅


Liu Shan 刘禅 - son of
Liu Bei 刘备
Second and Last Emperor of Shu Han 蜀汉











208
  -209


Winter of 208-209
Cao Cao 曹操 lost
the Battle of Red Cliffs
赤壁之战

Sun Quan 孙权
Emperor of Eastern Wu

Liu Bei 刘备
Sun Quan 孙权



208

Death of 华佗 Hua Tuo

physician



















211

Birth of 司马昭 Sima Zhao










 

212-
214

Campaign to take over Yi Province /
Yi Zhou 益州 (益州之战)
by Liu Bei 刘备

Liu Bei 刘备 - First Emperor of
Shu Han 蜀汉
Today, Yi Province / Yi Zhou 益州 covers Sichuan 四川 and
Chongqing 重庆










217-
219

Hangzhong Campaign 汉中之战

Liu Bei 刘备 took control
of Hanzhong 汉中
Liu Bei 刘备 vs Cao Cao 曹操

Hanzhong 汉中 is located in the Province of Shaanxi 陕西











219
 

Death of 张仲景 Zhang Zhongjǐng


Author of 金匮要略
Synopsis of the Golden Chamber











220
 
E. Han
 
End of Eastern Han 东汉王朝
 
     

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

220





 
 Three
Kingdoms



Three Kingdoms 三国







 
     




  220-265   Wei 魏
the Wei 魏 state
of the
三国 Three-Kingdoms Period

founded by
Cao Cao 曹操
Cao Wei 曹魏  - regarded as
the most powerful of the Three
Kingdoms 三国

Cao Pi 曹丕
Emperor of Cao Wei 曹魏
(calligrapher)
ruled as Emperor Wen 魏文帝
Sima Zhao 司马昭
military general and statesman
of Cao Wei 曹魏

 

















    221-263   Shu 蜀汉
 
  founded by 刘备 Liu Bei

 









    229-280   Wu 吴
 
  Wu 吴 's famous king
Sun Quan 孙权
 









220
 

End of the reign of Emperor Xian 汉献帝
of 东汉 Eastern Han Dynasty

Last and 14th Emperor of
the Eastern Han Dynasty



220

Death of Cao Cao 曹操





220


Cao Pi succeeded Cao Cao 曹操
and forced Emperor Xian to abdicate





220

State of Cao Wei 魏 was formed


Capital - Xuchang 许昌 in central Henan 河南 province


220
 

Death of 关羽 Guan Yu
 

关羽 Guan Yu was made a deity
during the Sui Dynasty 隋朝




220
 

Cao Pi 曹丕 named Sun Quan 孙权 
the King of Wu 吴王













221
Shu Han state was established

Capital - Chengdu 程度

221
 

Liu Bei 刘备 became Emperor of
Shu Han
蜀汉





221
 
 

Death of Zhang Fei 张飞
 
 

Zhang Fei 张飞 - a military
commander serving under
Liu Bei 刘备











223
 


The Yellow Crane Tower 黄鹤楼 was
first constructed.
 


The Yellow Crane Tower 黄鹤楼 is located in today's City of Wuhan
武汉, the capital of the Hubei 湖北 Province. The tower was
damaged many times throughout history and was rebuilt in 1985.


223



Death of Liu Bei 刘备/劉備
End of Liu Bei 刘备's reign as
Emperor Shu Han





223
 

Liu Shan 刘禅 became King / Emperor
of the Shu Han 蜀汉













226
 

Luoyang 洛阳became Cao Wei 曹魏's
capital













229
 



Sun Quan 孙权 moved
his capital to Jianye 建业
 
 

Wu 吴 's famous king
Sun Quan 孙权
 
 
Jianye 建业 would later become (today's) Nanjing 南京
the capital of the province of Jiangsu 江苏. The name
Jianye
建业
embodies "建功立业" - making great accomplishments
and attaining respectable goal
s.










232

Birth of 张华 Zhang Hua

politician, poet and writer











233
 
 

Birth of 陈寿 Chen Shou
 
 

西晋 Western Jin historian who
compiled the History of the
Three Kingdoms 三国志











234

Death of Zhuge Liang 诸葛亮













236
 
 

Birth of 司马炎 Sima Yan
 
 

司马炎 Sima Yan was the founding
emperor of 晋Jin Dynasty and the
grandson of Sima Yi











251
 

Death of 司马懿 Sima Yi
 

司马懿 Sima Yi - minister / warlord
of 曹魏 Cao Wei state











259
 

Birth of 司马衷 Sima Zhong
 

Second emperor of 晋 Jin Dynasty
and
the son of
司马炎 Sima Yan











263
 

Shu and its capital Chengdu 成都
conquered by Wei 魏 armies

Deng Ai
Zhong Hui











-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Elsewhere in The World

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

265


 
 

 
 Western
Jin
西

Start of Western Jin 西晋

  

 
 
 
 
  Death of Sima Zhao
司马昭
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital: Luoyang 洛阳






 


266

Start of the reign of Emperor Wu 晋武帝
Sima Yan 司马炎 First emperor










271
 

Death of Liu Shan 刘禅
 

Second and last emperor of
蜀汉
Shu Han






     

280
 

End of State of Wu 吴国 and also
the Three Kingdoms 三国

Last emperor of Eastern Wu
was Sun Hao 孫皓











283
 
 

Birth of Ge Hong 葛洪
 
 

Ge Hong 葛洪
Daoist, alchemist, writer
originator of First Aid in TCM
Author of Baopuzi 抱朴子 - which is a collection of essays
covering topics on immortality, alchemy, legalism and society
 










289
 

Production of the 三国志 History of the
Three Kingdoms

Work credited to 陈寿 Chen Shou
 











290
 

End of the reign and death of Emperor Wu
晋武帝 / Sima Yan 司马炎

First emperor of 晋 Jin
 



290
 

Start of the reign of 司马衷 Sima Zhong
 

Second emperor of 晋 Jin and the
son of 司马炎 Sima Yan











297
 
 

Death of 陈寿 Chen Shou
 
 

西晋 Western Jin historian who
compiled the History of the
Three Kingdoms 三国志











300
Death of 张华 Zhang Hua
Western Jin poet and writer politician









301
Death of 司马伦 Sima Lun
Son of Emperor 司马懿 Sima Yi Military general and 琅琊郡王 King of Langya county

301


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Armenia became the first Christian country in the world









303
 
 

Birth of Wang Xizhi 王羲之
 


Wang Xizhi 王羲之
Eastern Jin Dynasty 东晋
minister
calligrapher and writer

 










304
 

Start of Sixteen Kingdoms
十六国













307
 

Death and end of reign of 司马衷
Sima Zhong 

Second emperor of 晋 Jin and
the son of 司马炎 Sima Yan











311
 

Yongjia Rebellion / Disaster of Yongjia
永嘉之乱


The capital Luoyang 洛阳 was sacked by captured by the
Xiongnu 匈奴 and other groups










313
 
 

The 吐谷渾 Tuhuyun Khanate/Kingdom
was established
 


The Kingdom has been described as proto Mongol-speaking
nomadic 鲜卑 Xianbei people in the Northwest (祁连 山Qilian
Moutains/ 青海 Qinghai) region


313


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Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan,
which accepted Christianity









316   End of Western Jin 西晋      









Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World

317

 
 
 



Start of 东晋 Eastern Jin



 
 
    Capital: Jianye 建业 or Jiangkang 健康
建业 Jianye would later become (today's) Nanjing 南京
the capital of the province of Jiangsu 江苏

 










337

Start of 前燕 Former Yan













341


Birth of 司马丕 Sima Pi


the 6th emperor of 东晋
Eastern Jin











351

Start of 前秦 Former Qin













353


Mogao Grottoes 莫高窟 constructed -
according to some reports













354

 

General 桓溫 Huanwen led a campaign
to fight the 前秦 Former Qin
 
南 郡宣武公
Duke Xuanwu
of Nan Commandery




354


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Birth of the renowned Christian philosopher Augustine of Hippo
 









361


Start of the reign of 司马丕 Sima Pi


the 6th emperor of
东晋 Eastern Jin



361
 
 

Death of Wang Xizhi 王羲之

 

Wang Xizhi 王羲之
Eastern Jin Dynasty 东晋
minister
Calligrapher and writer
 











363
 
 

Death of Ge Hong 葛洪
 
 

Ge Hong 葛洪
Daoist, alchemist, writer
originator of First Aid in TCM
Author of Baopuzi 抱朴子 - which is a collection of essays
covering topics on immortality, alchemy, legalism and society
 


363


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Earthquake at Petra









365


Death and end of reign of 司马丕 Sima Pi


the 6th emperor of 东晋
Eastern Jin



365
 

Start of the reign of 司马奕 Sima Yi
Emperor Fei of Jin 晋废帝

the 7th emperor of 东晋
Eastern Jin



c. 365


Birth of 陶渊明 Tao Yuanming


Poet

among his literary works 桃花源记
The Peach Blossom Spring Story


365
 

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Crete Earthquake & Tsunami - hit the port city of Alexandria
 









366
 
 

Monk Lezun opened a cave at Mogao
莫高 and Monk Faliang opened another
next to it













370

End of 前燕 Former Yan












372


End of the reign of 司马奕 Sima Yi


the 7th emperor of 东晋
Eastern Jin











375


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in other parts of the world




The Huns attacked and devastated Europe
Birth of Alaric I - first King of the Visigoths









376
 

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in other parts of the world



The Visigoths crossed the Danube
escaping the Huns

















383
Battle of Fei River 淝水之战

Former Qin against Eastern Jin Dynasty









384
 

Start of 后秦 Later Qin
 


Construction of Maijishan Grottoes 麦积山石窟 began during
the Later Qin 后秦 period


384

Start of 后燕 Later Yan













386


Death of 司马奕 Sima Yi


the 7th emperor of
东晋
Eastern Jin



386
 

Start of 北魏 Northern Wei
 


During this time, the Ballad of Hua Mulan 花木兰
was written.


386
 

Birth of 沮渠蒙逊 Juqu Mengxun
 

king of the Xiongnu state
北凉 Northern Liang



386


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Peace treaty bet Roman Emperor Theodosius I and Empire of Iranians King Shapur III
Armenia divided into two vassal states









394
End of Former Qin 前秦












395


参合陂之战 Canhe Bei zhi zhan 
Battle of Canhe Slope
北魏 Northern Wei
后燕 Later Yan

Victory: 北魏 Northern Wei
 


395


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Massive attacks by the Huns on the Eastern Roman Empire
In India, King Rudrasimha III defeated by the Gupta Empire









397

Start of 北凉 Northern Liang













397

Start of 南凉 Southern Liang













398
 

Birth of 范晔 Fan Ye
 

historian from 南朝宋 Song of
the Southern Dynasties
writer of 后汉书 History of Eastern Han
 










407

End of 后燕 Later Yan





407
Start of Xia Kingdom 夏王国


founded by the Huns 匈奴

















410


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The Visigoths led by King Alaric captured and sacked Rome









414

End of 南凉 Southern Liang












417
 

End of Later Qin 后秦
 


Construction of Maijishan Grottoes 麦积山石窟 began during
the Later Qin 后秦 period










419
 
 

The capital of Xia Kingdom 夏王国
統萬城 Tongwen City was built


Location: Jingbian 靖边 County in Shaanxi 陕西
 










420




Start of the Mogao Caves 莫高窟 of the Early Period 420CE - 581CE


420

Start of the Western Liang 西凉













420
End of Eastern Jin 东晋      









Year
Dynasty
Main Events
Key Achievements
Key People
Notes
Elsewhere in The World









420
 

Start of Northern and Southern Dynasties
南北朝





















420
 
 

Start of 南朝宋 Southern Song
aka 刘宋 Liu Song
 

刘裕 Liu Yu founding emperor
statesman and militarist
- 宋武帝Emperor Wu of Song

First of the four Southern Dynasties
 
 


421
 

Fall of the Western Liang 西凉 to
Northern Liang 北凉













421



陶渊明 Tao Yuanming wrote 桃花源记
The Peach Blossom Spring Story

桃花源记
The Peach Blossom
Spring Story
poet
 
 











422
 

Death of 刘裕 Liu Yu
- 宋武帝 Emperor Wu of Song

founding emperor
statesman and militarist











427

Death of 陶渊明 Tao Yuanming
poet











430
 
Northern
Liang 北凉
Year that surviving earliest caves in
莫高窟 Mogao Grottoes traced back to


Caves 268, 272 and 275 are examples of Northern Liang 北凉
caves in the Mogao Grottoes 莫高窟










432
End of 夏王国 Xia Kingdom 












439
 

End of Sixteen Kingdoms
十六国





439
 

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The second city of the Roman Empire, Carthage
in Africa was captured by the Vandals led by King Genseric









445
 

Death of 范晔 Fan Ye
 

historian from 南朝宋 Song of
the Southern Dynasties
writer of 后汉书 History of Eastern Han
 










451


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Battle of the Catalaunian Plains - between the Romans and the Huns led by Attila

















460

End of Northern Liang 北凉













476
 

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Fall of the western Roman Emprire









479

End of 南朝宋 Southern Song







aka 刘宋 Liu Song













486
 
 


building of canals started which were
expanded to become the Grand Canal 
大运河 da yunhe  during the
Sui
Dynasty













493
 
 
 

Traced start of Longmen Grottoes
龙门石窟 Longmen shiku
in
洛阳市 Luoyang, 河南 Henan

Emperor Xiaowen
北魏孝文帝

 











495

 

Construction of the 少林 Shaolin
temple
 


Northern Wei Dynasty 北魏
 










502

Start of Southern Liang 南朝梁













503
 

Birth of 陈武帝陈霸 先 Chen Wudi /
Chen Baxian

First emperor of the 南朝陈 Chen
of the Southern Dynasties











512



Birth of 谯国夫人 Lady Qiao Guo /
冼夫人 Lady Xian


leader of 俚人 Li people
(branch of ancestors of
壮族 Zhuang ethnic group)











526
 

Birth of 齐文宣帝高洋 Qi Wenxuan,
Emperor Gaoyang

First emperor of the 北齐
Northern Qi











530
 
 

Birth of 李德林 Li Delin
 
 

李德林 Li Delin -
historian of Northern Wei
and
Sui dynasty











533


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in other parts of the world



Battle of Carthage Byzantine vs Vandals
 - Victory: Byzantine (Romans)









534
End of Northern Wei Empire 北魏





















535
Start of Western Wei 西魏












541

Birth of 杨坚 Yang Jian

隋文帝 Emperor Wen of Sui First emperor of 随 Sui


541
 

Birth of Sun Simiao 孙思邈
 

Doctor and herbalist; credited
for inventing gunpowder
writer of 千金要方 Prescriptions Worth A Thousand in Gold
Tang Compendium of herbal medicine


541
 

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Plague of Justinian in the Byzantine Empire starts
 









550



Start of 北齐 Northern Qi 



First Emperor
齐文宣帝高洋 Qi Wenxuan
Emperor Gaoyang











557
End of 西魏 Western Wei




557
End of 南朝梁 Southern Liang





557

Start of 北周 Northern Zhou





557
 

Start of 南朝陈 Chen of the Southern
Dynasties

陈武帝 陈霸先 Chen Wudi/
Chen Baxian was the first Emperor











559
 

Death of 陈武帝陈霸先 Chen Wudi /
Chen Baxian

First emperor of the 南朝陈 Chen
of the Southern Dynasties



559
 

Death of 齐文宣帝高洋 Qi Wenxuan,
Emperor Gaoyang

First emperor of 北齐 Northern Qi












566
 
 

Birth of Li Yuan 李渊
 


later to be the Tang 唐 Emperor
Tang Gaozu 唐高祖 -
in 618 CE  
This would make Emperor Tang Gaozu 唐高祖 52 years old when he ascended the throne











571
 


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Birth of the Prophet Muhammad









577

End of 北齐 Northern Qi













581

End of Northern Zhou 北周












589
 

End of 南朝陈 Chen of the Southern
Dynasties





588
589
  End of Northern and Southern Dynasties
南北朝
 
    Some historians consider the Northern and Southern Dynasties
南北朝 as the latter part of the longer
Six Dynasties (220 CE - 589 CE)


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World









581


 
 Sui


Start of Sui Dynasty 隋朝
Start of the reign of Emperor Wen
隋文帝 / 杨坚 Yang Jian



  First Emperor of Sui Dynasty
Emperor Wen隋文帝 /
杨坚 Yang Jian

 

capital: Chang'an 长安
Great project of extending the canal system
linking the North China plain to
Changjiang River Valley

 








 
 





587
 
 
 

Emperor Wen/杨坚 Yang Jian formally
established a subject-based examination
system to replace the 九品中正制
nine grade Zhongzheng system





























590
Death of Li Delin 李德林












598

Birth of 唐太宗 Tang Taizong

Personal name: 李世民 Li Shimin
Second Emperor of Tang 唐 Dynasty


598
 
 

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in other parts of the world
 



Historians opined that Chenla and Funan were unified
(by Bhavavarman) by this year and this would eventually
lead to the beginning of the Khmer Empire in 802CE









601


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Æthelberht of Kent was the 1st Anglo-Saxon king to be baptized
which soon led to the Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England









602
 

Birth of 玄奘 Xuanzang
 

Buddhist monk, traveler,translator
of scriptures



602



Death of 谯国夫人 Lady Qiao Guo /
冼夫人 Lady Xian


leader of 俚人 Li people (branch
of ancestors of the 壮族 Zhuang
ethnic group)











604
 

Death and end of the reign of Emperor
Wen 隋文帝 / 杨坚 Yang Jian

First emperor of 隋 Sui



604
 

Start of the reign of Emperor Yang
/ Emperor Yang Guang 杨广


During his reign the Grand Canal was dredged and the capital in
the east, Luoyang 洛阳 was built










609



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The Quran was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad









617
 

Battle of Huoyi 霍邑之战 Huo yi zhi zhan
 

Li Yuan 李渊 against the
Sui 隋 army



617
 

Start of the reign of Emperor Gong of Sui
隋恭帝

Personal name:
Yang You 楊侑











618
 
 
  End of the reign of Emperor Gong of Sui
隋恭帝

End of the Sui Dynasty 隋朝
     

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------







Year Dynasty Main Event(s) Key Achievements Key People Notes Elsewhere in The World









618
 

 
Tang







618



Start of 唐代 Tang Dynasty

 

Tang Gaozu  唐高祖
First Emperor of Tang 唐高祖

capital: Chang'an 长安 ch�ng ān
 



618
 

Death of Emperor Yang Guang 杨广
Emperor Yang of Sui

Emperor Yang Guang 杨广












621
 

Birth of Li Tian 李畋 - Father of Fireworks
花炮祖师













622






刘黑闼 Liu Heita, rebel leader during the
late 隋 Sui Dynasty & early 唐 Tang
Dynasty proclaimed himself 汉东王
King of Handong & established his
capital at 洺州 Mingzhou
河北 Hebei









622
 
 

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happened in other parts of the world




 
 
The Prophet Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to
Medina. --> Hijra
Islamic New Year









624
 

Birth of Wu Zetian 武则天




624
 

Birth of 慕容诺曷钵 Murong nuo he bo
 

The last Khan of the 吐谷渾 Tuyuhun
Khanate / Kingdom











625
 

Birth of Princess Wencheng 文成公主
 

She was betrothed to the Tibetan
King Songtsen Gampo











626
 

End of Emperor Tang Gaozu's reign
Tang Gaozu  唐高祖





626


  



Xuanwu Gate Incident
玄武门之变
Start of the reign of
Emperor 唐太宗 Tang Taizong 



Li Shimin 李世民
became the second Tang 唐
emperor and reigned as
Emperor
唐太宗 Taizong

Li Shimin 李世民
- second son of
Tang Gaozu 唐高祖
 - assassinated his brothers, staging a "gate coup"

 
 


627
 


玄奘 Xuanzang embarked on a journey to
 India seeking the 真经 zhen jing Sutra
scriptures

Buddhist monk, traveler,
translator of scriptures

On his return to 长安 Chang'an he brought with him 657
scriptures written in Sanskrit











628
 

Birth of of Emperor 唐高宗 Tang
Gaozong

Personal name: Li Zhi 李治
3rd 唐 Tang Emperor
His regent was Emperor 武则天 Wu Zetian
 


630
 
 
 
 


Birth of Di Renjie 狄仁杰
 
 
 
 


Di Renjie was and official of the
Tang 唐 Dynasty and chancellor
during the reign of 
Wu Zetian 武则天



630


Birth of 娄师德 Lou Shide


唐 Tang Minister and
military general











632
 
 

Envoys from the 突骑施 Tuqi tribe of
焉耆王 King Yanqi paid tribute to the
唐 Tang Dynasty





632
 

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The Prophet Muhammad died









635
 

Death of Emperor Tang Gaozu
唐高祖





635
 

 

慕容诺曷钵 Murong nuo he bo of the
吐谷渾 Tuyuhun Kingdom became
Khan


慕容诺曷钵 Murong nuo he bo
also had the Tang Dynasty noble 
title of the
青 海王 Prince of
Qinghai
General 侯君集 Hou Junji and his troops were dispatched by
Emperor 唐太宗 Tang Taizong to help in the governance of
吐谷渾 Tuyuhun


635
 
 


Arrival of Olopen, an archbishop, and his
retinue in Chang'an 长安
 
 

Olopen and his followers called
themselves "Nestorians" after
their leader Nestorius who
founded the branch of
Christianity - Nestorianism
They were welcomed by Chancellor Fang Xuanling 房玄龄
(appointed by Emperor Taizong 唐太宗), provided an imperial
library for scripture translation and funds to build a church.
 
 










637
The construction of the Potala Palace
Songtsen Gampo


637
 


Wu Zetian 武则天 enters the
唐 Tang Imperial Court

She was 13 years old














639


please scroll to the right to see what
happened in other parts of the world




Muslim conquest of Egypt 639 - 646 CE









640
 
 
 

弘化公主 Princess Honghua became
Queen of
the 吐谷渾 Tuyuhun Khanate /
Kingdom
when she married 慕容诺曷钵
Murong nuo he bo

弘化公主 Princess Honghua was
reputed to be beautiful and
dignified
 











641
 

King Songtsen Gampo married Princess
Wencheng 文成公主













645
 

Battle between Tang and Goguryeo for
Ansi City (a major city of the Goguryeo)

Army sent by Emperor Taizong
唐太宗



645-
646

玄奘 Xuanzang returned from India with
657 pieces of Buddhist scriptures


The Buddhist scriptures were in Sanskrit
 







 

649
 

Death and end of reign of Emperor
唐太宗 Tang Taizong

Personal name: 李世民 Li Shimin

Second Emperor of the Tang Dynasty
唐朝第二位皇帝