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Timeline - Chinese Dynasties






To help us have a better "feel" of the length of time, y.a. is used (to denote years ago).









      Click on the dynasty names to jump to the respective timelines










Xia 夏 朝 xi cho






Shang 商朝 shāng cho






Zhou 周朝 zhōu cho






Eastern Zhou 东周 dōng zhōu






Spring and Autumn Period 春秋时代 chūn qiū sh di






Warring States Period 战国 zhn gu















Qin 秦 代 qn di






Han 汉 代 hn di






Xin 新 朝 xīn cho






Late Han 后 汉 hu hn






Three Kingdoms 三 国sān gu






Western Jin 西 晋 xī jn






Eastern Jin 东 晋 dōng jn






Sui 隋 su






Tang 唐代 tng di






Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国 wǔ di sh gu






Song 宋代sng di






Yuan 元朝 yun cho






Ming 明代mng di






Qing 清朝qīng cho






















Paleolithic Age 旧石器时代 ji sh q sh di














1.7 Million
Years Ago

Yuanmou man
元谋人 yun mu rn
first homo erectus ever found
within boundaries of China

fossil remains were found in Yuanmou County
in Yunnan 云南 yn nn


















700,000
Years Ago
 








600,000
Years Ago
 

Peking Man
 
 
北京猿人 běi jīng yun rn
 
 

Homo erectus pekinensis
discovered (1921) in Zhoukoudian 周口店 zhōu kǒu din
near Fangshan district 房山区 fng shān qū of Beijing


200,000
Years Ago















10,000
Years Ago

The End of the
Paleolithic Age





















9,000
Years Ago
 

The Start of the
Neolithic Age
新石器时代 xīn sh q sh di













c. 5000-
3000 BCE
7000 y.a.


Yangshao (neolithic) Culture
仰韶文化 yǎng sho wn hu

 
red and black pottery


 

See also Banpo Museum 半坡 bn pō, in Xian 西安 xī'ān
 
 



















c. 3400-
2250 BCE

 

Liangzhu 良渚 ling zhǔ
neolithic culture
of Changjiang 长江 chng jiāng delta
 





About 3000BCE
The Start of the Bronze Age






青铜时代 qīng tng sh di












2500 -
1700 BCE

Longshan Culture
龙山文化
lng shān wn hu


Yellow River 黄河 hung h Valley
- regarded as
Cradle of Chinese Civilisation


















Year Dynasty Main Event(s) Key
Achievements
Key People
Notes

     

 
BCE 2500   Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
三皇 sān hung    五帝 wǔ d
    Mainly Legendary (at the moment)
=========================


4500 y.a.            Mythological Sage-Rulers Potter's Wheel  
 


         Farming    

   

The Three Noble Kings
三 皇 sān hung


     

    燧 人su rn

Inventor of Fire (legendary)

   

    伏羲 f xī


Founder of Chinese
governance

   

    神农 shn nng
 
agriculture and
herbal medicine

 

       
Five Emperors
五帝 wǔ d

 

2697-
2597

 
      Yellow Emperor 黄帝 hung d



 
buried in the Mausoleum of Yellow Emperor
Huangling county  黄陵 hung lng
in Yan'an 延安 yn ān,
Shaanxi 陕西 shǎn xī
 


 2513
-2435
      Zhuan Xu 颛顼 zhuān xū
 
 





Di Ku or Emperor Ku 帝喾 d k

great-grandson of Yellow Emperor 黄帝 hung d



2342
(2200)



Emperor Yao (4th Emperor)
Tang Yao 唐尧 tng yo
second son of Di Ku 帝喾 d k











2256





Traditional first date for the
通书 tōng shū  almanac



According to the 书经 shū jīng (The Book of History),
the 通书 tōng shū (Ancient Almanac) has been in publication
since 225



2256       Emperor Shun (5th Emperor)
虞舜 y shn
legendary emperor of great wisdom
  


           

           


   
 


     
 


     
   



        

           

2207          

~ 4200 y.a.          

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

2206 Xia
 xi cho


Start of Xia Dynasty 夏朝 xi cho


late neolithic cultures
 
wine making

ancient three-legged
bronze wine vessel
/ wine goblet 
jiǎ

horse herding
carriages 
Yu 大禹 d yǔ
founder of Xia Dynasty
夏朝 xi cho









 
Yu the Great 大禹 d yǔ
Erhlitou Culture
二里头文化 r lǐ tou wn hu
in Yanshi county  偃师 yǎn shī
in Luoyang 洛阳

  二里头文化 r lǐ tou wn hu ==> Xia Dynasty 夏朝 xi cho

first dynasty to be recorded,
some claimed it to be quasi legendary
along the banks / valley of the Yellow River 黄河 hung h

slavery

Yu the Great 大禹 d yǔ controls the Flood
大禹治水 d yǔ zh shuǐ


4200 y.a.
17 Kings


 
Capital: Dengfeng 登封 dēng fēng
Today Dengfeng 登封 dēng fēng is under the jurisdiction of
Zhengzhou 郑州市 zhng zhōu sh (the capital of Henan province
河南省 h nn shěng


    14 Generations
   

     
   

     
   

1766          

3770 y.a.          

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

1766
3770 y.a
.





 
Shang


shāng cho
 


Start of Shang Dynasty 商朝 shāng cho

 








 
turtle shells with markings
oracle bone writing

oracle bones
甲骨文jiǎ gǔ wn


殷契 yīn q


 

Wu Ding 武丁 wǔ dīng
legendary founder
Shang dynasty
 
 



 
 
 
 
Capital: Bo (Shanqiu in Henan) and Yin 殷 (Anyang in Henan)
 
 
 





  
 
   




 
 


    civilisation based on
agriculture,
hunting
animal husbandry
bronze work
青铜 qīng tng

 
   

         jade 玉 y    

      ancient three-legged round
(occasionally four-legged
and rectangular)
cauldron with
two ear-shaped handles
   

           

     
   

      chariots,
yoke saddle
    

           

1401 ...
1374
 
 
Yin

yīn
   
Pan Geng / Ban Geng
般庚 bān gēng
 


Period starting from Pan Geng 般庚 bān gēng
is known as the Yin yīn Dynasty -
the Golden Age of the Shang Dynasty
 
 
n


 
     


          Capital: Yin     near modern day Anyang
安阳 ān yng
in Henan 河南 h nn


         
Yin (Shang) Ruins
  殷墟 yīn xū
Anyang 安阳 ān yng
in Henan 河南 h nn

   


mid 1300
- 1200

 
    writing first appeared
toward the end of the
Shang Dynasty
商朝 shāng cho
 
  oracle bones contained divination texts
 
 
 


1200
 

 
      Fu Hao 妇好 f hǎo
wife of King Wu Ding 武丁 wǔ dīng
Lady Hao, female Chinese general
late Shang Dynasty
商朝 shāng cho



          well known to art lovers for

          fine bronze vessels, bronze artifacts, weapons

          astronomers found Mars and comets
 


        Emperor Di Xin 帝辛 d xīn
last ruler - tyrant
 
 
 

1122


 

revolt
End of Shang Dynasty -1027BCE


 
  Legend: Jizi




refused to surrender - founded one of the earliest Korean states



  


3116 y.a.
 



     

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

1122 or
1045



 
 
 
Zhou


zhōu cho
 
Start of Western Zhou
西周
xī zhōu





 
Mandate of Heaven 天 命 tiān mng
doctrine used to rule
the dynasty


 
   
   
Founder: Zhou Wu
周武王 zhōu wǔ wng
 (Ji Fa 姬发)




 
Capital: Haojing 镐京 ho jīng
(near Xian 西安 and Fengjing)






 


1050

 
 





 


    one of the longest dynasties in China
1122 BC -> 221 BC
 
 

Ji family in control of this
dynasty - 39 family members
ruled during this period
 
天命 tiān mng -  political theory asserted that Heaven,
天tiān was primarily interested in the affairs of man
 
 


     

The Emperor must rule fairly and justly.

    first half - high stratified

If a ruler / dynasty rules only with its own self interest, 

    feudalistic system
lesser lords owing allegiance to
greater lords
    Heaven will remove the mandate from the ruler

 


     
   

      customs, laws and
institutions
  The concepts of the 天命 tiān mng and 命 mng
(physical order of the universe)


          combined make the Dao 道 do  (Way of Heaven)

           

771 W Zhou End of Western Zhou 西周 xī zhōu      

Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People


770

 


 
 
Eastern
 Zhou


dōng zhōu
Start of Eastern Zhou






 
    Capital: Luoyang 洛阳 lu yng
 (in Henan 河南 h nn) in the East





 


2775 y.a.   decline of feudal aristocracy from bronze to iron  


      use of money    









    Age of Philosophy
The Hundred Schools of Thought
诸子百家 zhū zǐ bǎi jiā
 
 

 
various schools of
philosophers/thinkers
during
late Zhou
Spring and Autumn
Warring States Period
 
   770 BCE - 220 BCE























Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People


722







 



Spring and Autumn Period
春秋时代
chūn qiū sh di


春秋战国时代
chūn qiū zhn gu sh di

the Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC)
and Warring States (475-221 BC) periods
Eastern Zhou (770-221 BC)
   Five dukes









 
 

































           

           

604
 
 
  Birth of Lao Zi 老子lǎo zǐ

 
Dao de Jing
道德 经
do d jīng
Lao Zi 老子lǎo zǐ




     
 


     
 


         


         


           

          Knowing others is wisdom;

    feudal states fought against each other     Knowing the self is enlightenment.

           

551

 


 
   Birth of Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ





 
Confucianism - ethical and
philosophical system



 
 
Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ

 


 
Five Classics 五经 wǔ jīng
 
1) Book of Odes / Songs / Poetry 诗经shī jīng
2) Book of History 书经 shū jīng
3) Book of Changes I Ching 易经 y jīng
4) Book / Classic of Rites 礼记 lǐ j
5) Spring and Autumn Annals 春秋 chūn qiū


521
 
   
Death of Lao Zi 老子lǎo zǐ
 

            


           The Analects 论语 ln yǔ 

                  

              

         


         


505   Birth of Zeng Zi 曾子 zēng zǐ   Zeng Zi 曾子 zēng zǐ Philosopher and student of Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ 

          presumed author of a large portion of Great Learning 大学 d xu

          and important compiler of the Analects 论语 ln yǔ

494
War between State of Wu 吴 w and
the State of Yue 越 yu





481/
476

 
  End of Spring and Autumn Period
春秋时代
chūn qiū sh di
 
 
     

479
 
  Death of Kong Zi 孔子 kǒng zǐ
 
     










Sword of Gou Jian
越王勾践剑 践
yu wng  gōu jin jin
春秋五霸
chūn qiū wǔ b
the Five Hegemons
of the Spring and Autumn period

Duke Huan of Qi
齐桓公 (q hun gōng)

Duke Wen of Jin
晋文公 (jn wn gōng)

King Zhuang of Chu
楚庄王 (chǔ zhuāng wng)

Duke Xiang of Song
宋襄公 (sng xiāng gōng)

Duke Mu of Qin
秦穆公 (qn m gōng)

King Helu of Wu
吴王阖闾 (w wng h lǘ)

King Gou Jian of Yue
越王勾践 (yu wng gōu jin)



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

475
 
 
 
 
 
 

zhn gu
 
Start of Warring States Period
战国 zhn gu
 
 
 

 
  Seven overlords
 
 
  
 


 


 















   
  Mo Zi 墨子m zǐ  Mohist School founded

436   Death of Zeng Zi 曾子 zēng zǐ      

400
 
  Death of Mo Zi 墨子m zǐ
 
 
 

372
 
  Birth of Meng Zi 孟子 mng zǐ
 
  Meng Zi 孟子 mng zǐ
 
 

369
Birth of Zhuang Zi
Zhuang Zi important interpreter of Daoism

310   Birth of Xun Zi   Xun Zi  

289   Death of Meng Zi      

286
Death of Zhuang Zi




259

 
  Birth of Prince Ying Zheng
(Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇 qn shǐ hung)
     

256
Birth of Liu Bang 刘 邦 li bāng




237   Death of Xun Zi      

232
Birth of Xiang Yu 项羽 xing yǔ




229
 
 
  Birth of Qin Er Shi (son of Qin Shi Huang)
(Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇 qn shǐ hung)
     

221 Zhou End of Eastern Zhou/Warring States Periodd      

Year Dynasty Main Event Key Achievements Key People
Notes

221
 




 
Qin


qn di
China Proper was unified and
the Qin Dynasty 秦代 qn di begins





 
  Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇 qn shǐ hung





Capital: Chang 'an near  Xian 西 安市 xī ān



 
 
 
  


    Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇 qn shǐ hung
became the First Emperor
forced imposition of
common system of writing

Lesser Seal writing
Meng Tian - General of Great Wall


 
 

     
Li Si - Prime Minister  

     
Zhao Gao - eunuch  

210


 
  Death of Qin Shi Huang
秦始皇 qn shǐ hung

end of feudalism
 
 
 
Qin Er Shi (Hu Hai) became the
Second Emperor
 

 


 
 
 
 

208   Li Si's execution  
 

    Zhao Gao became powerful      

207   Zi Ying became the third and last Emperor burning of classics



207
 

Battle of Julu 巨鹿县j l
 
Xiang Yu 项羽xing yǔ 's
Chu defeated Qin amy

The Great Wall
Age of sculpture - high brush used in writing; beginning of literacy



















206


End of Qin 秦代 qn di    

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes
BC 206


   
 
 
Han


hn di
Start of Western Han 西汉 xī hn








founder:
Liu Bang 刘 邦 li bāng
He ruled as the first Han Emperor
reign name: Han Gaozu
汉高祖刘邦 hn gāo zǔ li bāng




conflict between Xiang Yu 项羽 xing yǔ
 and Liu Bang 刘邦 li bāng
 
Western Han 206 BCE to 9 BCE with the capital
Changan 长安 chng ān





202
 
  Strife between
Chu and Han
  (warlord of Chu
Xiang Yu 项羽 xing yǔ)
 

    Death of Xiang Yu 项羽 xing yǔ
Start of the reign of
Liu Bang 刘 邦 li bāng
 
 



195
 

End of reign and the death of
Liu Bang 刘 邦 li bāng













179
 
 
 
  Birth of Dong Zhongshu
董仲舒 dǒng zhng shū
 
 
 

  Dong Zhongshu 董仲舒 dǒng zhng shū was a philosopher /
scholar / statesman - responsible for establishing / promoting
Confucianism as system of values in Western Han;
civil service examinations
 


           

145
 
 
 
  Birth of Sima Qian
司马迁 sī mǎ qiān
 
 
 
Shiji 史记 shǐ j
Records of
the Grand Historian
 
 
Sima Qian
司马迁 sī mǎ qiān
 

 
Sima Qian 司马迁 sī mǎ qiān is a pioneering historian.
He is the author of Records of the Grand Historian
and refers to himself as The Grand Scribe
太史公 ti shǐ gōng



 141   Han Wudi 汉武帝 hn wǔ d
begins his reign

Emperor Han Wudi
汉武帝 hn wǔ d
He reigned for 54 years (141BCE - 87BCE)
- considered the most glorious period of Han Dynasty 汉代 hn di


       
 


 
 
 
     

109
 


 

The Kingdom of Dian 滇王国
diān wng gu officially became
a vassal state of the Han Dynasty
汉代 hn di
 





104
 
 

Death of Dong Zhongshu
董仲舒 dǒng zhng shū






87
 

End of the reign of
Han Wudi 汉武帝 hn wǔ d













85
 
  Death of Sima Qian
司马迁 sī mǎ qiān
 
     









_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________






48
Start of Emperor Yuan's reign


























44 BCE - Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome
AD =========================================================================================================================================







3
 

 

Birth of Ban Biao 班彪bān biāo


 
started the Book of Han
aka Han History
汉书 hn shū
 
Father of
Ban Gu 班固 bān g
Ban Chao 班超bān chāo
Ban Zhao 班昭bān zhāo (daughter)
But credit for the Book of Han / Han History 汉书 hn shū
is given to Ban Biao 班彪bān biāo 's son
Ban Gu 班固 bān g
 

AD 9   End of Western Han      

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People
Notes

AD 9






 
Xin


xīn cho

 
Start of Xin 新朝 xīn cho






  Wang Mang 王莽 wng mǎng

overthrew the Han Dynasty
汉代 hn di and founded the
Xin 新朝 xīn cho 


 The character 新xīn means new / fresh








23 Xin End of Xin 新朝 xīn cho      

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

25
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eastern
 Han
or
Later Han


hu hn
 
Start of Eastern Han 东汉 dōng hn
Later Han 后汉 hu hn

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
    Capital:
Capital: Luoyang 洛阳 lu yng
 (in Henan 河南 h nn) in the East
Xuchang



 






32
 








 

Birth of Ban Gu 班固 bān g




 
Birth of Ban Chao 班超 bān chāo


 
 
completed the Book of Han
aka Han History
汉书 hn shū
started by his father
Ban Biao 班彪 bān biāo
 
renowned military man
- Western Regions /
- The Silk Road
base: Xianyang
咸阳市 xin yng sh

Xianyang prefecture level city in Shaanxi
咸阳市 xin yng sh
 


45
 
 

Birth of Ban Zhao 班昭 bān zhāo
 
 

daughter of Ban Biao 班彪 bān biāo
sister of Ban Gu 班固 bān g and
Ban Chao 班超 bān chāo
Code of Conduct for Women

 










58    
Emperor Ming  









 
75
 
    Introduction of 
Buddhism into China
 
   

111
 
 


the reported year of the
completion of Hanshu
汉书 hn shū












121


 






First Chinese character
dictionary - Shuowen
说文解字 shuō wn jiě z

with about 10,000 entries





Xu Shen许慎 xǔ shn
author / compiler








See also:
Kang Xi( 康熙 ) dictionary of the Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911)
康熙字典 kāng xī z diǎn  (~ 47,000 character entries)

Zhonghua Zihai 中华字海 zhōng hu z hǎi
the most comprehensive Chinese character dictionary
(over 85 000 character entries)

 



140
Birth of Hua Tuo 华陀 hu tu




162   Birth of Guan Yu 关羽 guān yǔ      

184


 
 

Yellow Turban Rebellion or
Yellow Scarves Rebellion
黄巾起义
hung jīn qǐ y
 





189
 

 
 
 

Emperor Shao (Liu Bian)
was deposed by 董卓 dǒng zhu
 
Liu Xie (Prince Chenliu) succeeded
the throne as Emperor Xian
 

董卓 dǒng zhu
 


 
  



192
 

Death of 董卓 dǒng zhu
 





205
 

End of Yellow Turban Rebellion
 





211
 
 
  Birth of Sima Zhao
司马昭 sī mǎ zhāo


     

220
 
E. Han
 
End of Eastern Han 东汉王朝 dōng hn
 
     

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

220





 
 Three
Kingdoms


sān gu
Three Kingdoms 三国sān gu







 
     




  220-265   Wei 魏 wi
the Wei 魏wi state
of the Three-Kingdoms Period
三国 sān gu
founded by Cao Cao 曹操 co cāo

Cao Wei 曹魏 co wi - regarded as
the most powerful of the Three Kingdoms
三国 sān gu


 
  Cao Pi 曹丕 co pī
Emperor of Cao Wei 曹魏 co wi
(calligrapher)
ruled as Emperor Wen
魏文帝 wi wn d

Sima Zhao
司马昭 sī mǎ zhāo
military general and statesman
of Cao Wei 曹魏 co wi

 

    221-263   Shu
蜀汉 shǔ hn

founded by Liu Bei
刘备 li bi
 
 
     

    229-280   Wu 吴 w
 
IWu 吴 w 's famous king Sun Quan
孙权 sūn qun
     

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

265


 
 

 
 Western
Jin
西

xī jn
Start of Western Jin xī jn

  

 
 
 
 
  Death of Sima Zhao
司马昭 sī mǎ zhāo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

280   End of Three Kingdoms 三国 sān gu      

316   End of Western Jin      









Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

317

 
 
 


dōng jn
Start of Eastern Jin 东晋 dōng jn



 
 
     

386
Start of Northern Wei












420
End of Eastern Jin 东晋 dōng jn      









420   Start of Northern and Southern Dynasties      

495
 
  Northern Wei Dynasty


 

Construction of the Shaolin
少林 sho ln temple










530
 
 

Birth of Li Delin 李德林 lǐ d ln
 
 

李德林 lǐ d ln -
historian of Northern Wei
and Sui dynasty











566
 

Birth of Li Yuan 李渊lǐ yuān


later to be the First Emperor of Tang
Gaozu - 唐高祖 tng gāo zǔ



588   End of Northern and Southern Dynasties      

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes









581


 
 Sui

su
Start of Sui Dynasty 隋

 


    capital: Chang'an 长安 chng ān
 
 




582
 

capital estabished in Chang'an
长安 chng ān
 
The Grand Canals
 
 


 
 


590
Death of Li Delin 李德林 lǐ d ln




















617   End of Sui Dynasty 隋      

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------







Year Dynasty Main Event(s) Key Achievements Key People Notes









618
 

 
Tang

tng di






618


Start of Tang Dynasty
唐代 tng di

Tang Gaozu 唐高祖 tng gāo zǔ
First Emperor of Tang
唐高祖 tng gāo zǔ
capital: Chang'an 长安 chng ān



626

  



Xuanwu Gate Incident
玄武门之变 xun wǔ mn zhī bin

 


Li Shimin 李世民 lǐ sh mn
became the second Tang 唐 tng
emperor and reigned as
Emperor Taizong
唐太宗 tng ti zōng
Li Shimin 李世民 lǐ sh mn
- second son of Gaozu 唐高祖tng gāo zǔ
 - assassinated his brothers, staging a "gate coup"
 
 










645
 

Battle between Tang and Goguryeo for
Ansi City (a major city of the Goguryeo)
   Army sent by Emperor Taizong
 
 









665
 

Ansi City (a major city of the Goguryeo)
was captured by the Tang













690


Emperor Regent Wuzetian










750



Start of the Viking Age

















830
 
 

Return journey of Arabian dhow from
China to Africa was shipwrecked near
Belitung Island


This shipwreck is also known as the Tang Shipwreck as the
dhow carried a large collection of Tang Dynasty artefacts


























907

Tang
 
End of Tang Dynasty 唐代 tng di
 





------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------














Year
Dynasty
Main Events
Key Achievements Key People Notes

907   Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十国 wǔ di sh gu
    period of political upheaval









907
 
 
大 辽
 
 
Great Liao 大辽 d lio or
Liao Dynasty 
辽朝 lio cho or
Khitan State 契丹國
q dān gu
established their southern
capital Liao Nanjing
or today's Beijing.
Khitan 契 丹 q dān warriors from
the Liao River valley of
Southern  Manchuria
They were related to the Mongols
  
 


960  
    5 dynasties succeeded each other in succession

















Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

960
Song
sng di
       

 

       

990
 
  Birth of Fan Kuan 范寬 fn kuān
 
Traveler Amid Mountains
and Streams (7ft tall)
Fan Kuan 范寬 fn kuān
Chinese Landscape Painter
greatest single example of the monumental landscape style of painting
based on Taoist principle of becoming one with nature


     


 


     
 


1030
 
  Death of Fan Kuan 范寬 fn kuān
 

   

1037
 

Birth of Su Shi 苏轼 sū sh / Su Dongpo
苏 东坡 sū dōng pō







1071
 
 
 

Su Shi 苏轼 sū sh / Su Dongpo
苏 东坡 sū dōng pō

appointed Secretary General of
Hangzhou 杭 州 hng zhōu


















End of Viking Era

1050























1089
 
 
 
 


Su Shi 苏轼 sū sh / Su Dongpo
苏 东坡 sū dōng pō

became Governor of Hangzhou
Hangzhou 杭 州 hng zhōu













1101
 
 

Death of Su Shi 苏轼 sū sh /
Su Dongpo
苏 东坡 sū dōng pō













1120


 

Birth of Zhao Boju 趙伯駒 zho b jū


 
Autumn Colors along
Rivers and Mountains
江山秋色圖
jiāng shān qiū s t












1122
 
 
 
 

Song rulers forced to retreat to the
South by Jurchens 女真 nǚ zhēn
 
Hangzhou 杭 州 became
the capital of Southern Song


Recyclable materials used to build Hangzhou 杭 州 hng zhōu
were from former Northern Song capital, Kaifeng 开封 kāi fēng


















1130

 
  Birth of Zhu Xi 朱熹 zhū xī
 
 
  Zhu Xi 朱熹 zhū xī
most significant / influential
Neo-Confucian
Four Books and Five Classics
 
 










1153
 

Jin rulers (Jurchen 女真 nǚ zhēn) Zhongdu
the Central Capital (former Liao Nanjing)





























1174
 
 

Sculpting of the "Nine Dragons Bathing
The Prince" 九龙浴太子图
jiǔ lng y ti zǐ t


Location: Dazu Grottoes
Display No 12
1174 - 1252










1180
Death of Zhao Boju 趙伯駒 zho b jū












1200   Death of Zhu Xi 朱熹 zhū xī  
 









1215
 

Mongols destroyed Jin's
Central Capital (former Liao Nanjing)













1216
 
 

Birth of Liu Bingzhong
刘 秉忠 li bǐng zhōng
 

architect and Chinese advisor
to Khubilai Khan - The Great Khan
忽 必烈汗 hū b li hn





 





1234
the Mongols defeated the Jin












1236
 
 
  Birth of Wen Tianxiang
文 天祥 wn tiān xing

  hero who resisted the Mongol
invasion of Jiangxi 江西 jiāng xī
 
 


 

Death of Wen Tianxiang
文 天祥 wn tiān xing






1256
 
 
 

Plan and construction of
Shangdu 都 shng dū
- 200 miles north of
former Jin capital and Liao Nanjing













1272
 
 
 

Khubilai Khan - The Great Khan
忽 必烈汗 hū b li hn renamed
former Jin capital and Liao Nanjing
to Dadu 大都 d dū













1274
 
 

Khubilai Khan - The Great Khan
忽 必烈汗 hū b li hn held court
in Dadu 大都 d dū for the first time





1274
 

Death of Liu Bingzhong
刘 秉忠 li bǐng zhōng

architect and Chinese advisor
to Khubilai Khan - The Great Khan
忽 必烈汗 hū b li hn



















1279 Song
宋代
       









Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

1279 Yuan
yun cho
       

 

  start of Forbidden Palace  Temujin - Genghis Khan  

  Mongol   project                Universal Ruler  

 1279   the Mongols defeated the Song
at Hangzhou 杭 州
 
 

























           

 1283
 
 
  Death of Wen Tianxiang
文 天祥 wn tiān xing
     

           

1360
 
 

Birth of Zhu Di 朱棣zhū d
the third Ming Emperor
 

Zhu Di 朱棣zhū d
Reign name : Yongle Emperor
永乐yǒng l











1368          

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes









1368 Ming
mng di
 First Emperor : Zhu Yuanzhang
朱元璋zhū yun zhāng
Founder of Ming dynasty
明代 mng di
   

 

       

1368
 
  Xanadu was destroyed
Xanadu - Shangdu 都 shng dū
   
  Zhu Di 朱棣 zhū d
Reign name : Yongle Emperor
永乐 yǒng l
commissioned most of the exploratory sea voyages of
Zheng He 郑和 zhng h
 
 


          capital: Beijing

1371
 
  Birth of Zheng He
郑和 zhng h
    moved from Nanjing

1403    
   

     
   

     
   

     

 

1405
 
      The 7 Voyages of Zheng He
郑和下西洋
zhng h xi xī yng
led seven naval expeditions for Ming Emperor Yongle 永乐yǒng l

          His first entourage included 62 ships and 27,800 men

1408



 


world's earlier and largest
known encyclopedia
Yongle Encyclopedia
Yongle Dadian
永乐大典 yǒng l d diǎn




1424   Death of Zhu Di ? ?     fantastic naval ventures the world had yet seen

1435
Death of Zheng He ??  
 

1470






 

Birth of Wen Zhengming
文征明 wn zhēng mng



   
  
  

Four great southern talents
(of the Ming)
江南四大才子
 jiāng nn s d ci zǐ
Tang Bohu 唐伯虎,
Zhu Zhishan 祝枝山,
Wen Zhengming 文征明 and
Xu Zhenqing 徐祯卿
 



1494
Birth of painter Qiu Ying 仇英Qi Yīng
Qiu Ying 仇英 Qi Yīng specialised in the gongbi 工笔gōng bǐ brush technique

1521
Start of the reign of
Emperor


1528
 
 

Birth of Qi Jiguang
戚继光 qī j guāng
 

Military strategist Qi Jiguang
戚继光 qī j guāng
 
resisted Japanese pirates
 
 


1552
Death of painter Qiu Ying 仇英Qi Yīng




1559
 
 
  Birth of Nurhaci / Emperor Tai Zu
努尔哈赤 nǔ ěr hā ch
 
Death of Wen Zhengming
文征明 wn zhēng mng
  Nurhaci
努尔哈赤 nǔ ěr hā ch
 founding father of the Manchu state
 
 
 

   
 
 

1561
The founding of Tianyi Ge once it housed up 70,000 founder: Fan Qin 范钦 fn qīn this is the oldest existing library in China



天一阁 tiān yī g books











1588
 
 

Death of Qi Jiguang
戚继光 qī j guāng
 





1616
 
  Reign of Nurhaci
努尔哈赤 nǔ ěr hā ch
 
     

1618
Birth of Wu Jiajing 吴嘉经 w jiā jīng












1626   Death of Nurhaci
努尔哈赤 nǔ ěr hā ch
     

      Secret Art of War:     

      The 36 Stratagems    









1638
Birth of Shunzhi Emperor 顺治 Shnzh












1644
 

Start of Shunzhi Emperor 顺治 Shnzh
 reign
Manchu warriors crossed
the Great Wall












           

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------







Year Dynasty Main Events Key Achievements Key People Notes

1644
 
Qing
qīng di



 

 

Manchu Dynasty founded by the
Aisin Gioro clan
爱新觉罗 i xīn ju lu
  Manchus 满族 mǎn z -
semi nomadic people
in northeastern China
 
In China today, the Manchus 满族 mǎn z represent one of the
56 ethnic groups China, Ethnic Groups 民 族 mn z
Aisin Gioro Xuanye
 -










1645
 

The main halls of the Forbidden City
are given names













1654

Birth of Kangxi 康熙 Kāng xī













1661














1662
 

Start of Kangxi 康熙 Kāng xī
Emperor's reign 













1678
Birth of Yongzheng 雍正 Yōng zhng












1709
 
 

Construction of the (Old) Summer
Palace Yuanmingyuan
圆 明园 yun mng yun













1711
Birth of Qianlong 乾隆 Qin lng












1722
 
 
 

End of Kangxi 康熙 Kāng xī
Emperor's reign
Start of Emperor Yongzheng
雍正 Yōng zhng reign













1725
 
 
 1728

Completion of the
Gujin Tushu Jicheng
古今图书集成
gǔ jīn t shū j chng


work begun in the early 1700s
under Kangxi Emperor
 
 










1735
 
 

Death of and the end of
Yongzheng 雍正 Yōngzhng
Emperor's reign













1735
 

Start of Qianlong
乾隆 Qinlng Emperor's reign













1785
 
 

 

Birth of Lin Zexu
林则徐 ln z x


 

aka "Commissioner Lin" /
Superintendent Lin - mandate from
Emperor to stop imports of opium
from Westerners - actions deemed
"casus belli" by the British











1796
 

End of Qianlong
乾隆 Qin lng Emperor's reign





















1814
 
 

Birth of Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全 hng xi qun
 

important leader of the
Taiping Rebellion 太平天国起义
ti png tiān gu qǐ y
young scholar from Guangdong 广东 guǎng dōng
 
 


     
 



1820
 
 

Birth of Ding Baozhen
丁宝桢 dīng bǎo zhēn
 

provincial mayor and creator of
Kung Pao Chicken
宫保鸡丁 gōng bǎo jī dīng











1835
 

Birth of Empress Dowager Ci Xi
慈禧太后 c xǐ ti hu





















1839
 
 

Start of the first Opium War
鸦片战争 yā pin zhn zhēng
Start of 近代 jn di

    the British Empire went to war to defend its lucrative Opium trade
resulting in the forced importation of opium into China
 










1840s
 
 




the British forced settlements in China - to make China
dependent on them (like India) - establishing "free trade"
as defined by them



 
 















1842
End of the first Opium War




1842
Treaty of Nanjing




















1851
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Start of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
太平天国 ti png tiān gu /
Taiping Rebellion 太平天国起义
ti png tiān gu qǐ y

 
 
Starting point: Jintian Village
金田村 jīn tin cūn
in Guangxi

Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全 hng xi qun
important leader
 
 
 
 
 
 
圣神 shng shn was the term used for God during
this period Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
太平天国 ti png tiān gu

 
 
 
 
 










1853
 




In neighboring Japan, Commodore Matthew Perry
sailed into Tokyo










1856
Start of the second Opium War












1858
 

Birth of Kang Youwei
康有为 kāng yǒu wi


scholar of Confucian classics, Confucian intellectual, educator
leader of failed reform movement ==> Hundred Days Reform










1860
 
 

British and French Armies destroyed
the Old Summer Palace
圆 明园 yun mng yun













1860
End of the second Opium War





         

1859
 
 

Birth of Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 yun sh kǎi
 
 

Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 yun sh kǎi
first President of the Republic of
China
also called himself Emperor Hongxian 洪憲皇帝 hng xin hung d









1860
 
 
 

Lushun 旅顺 lǚ shn, a district of
Dalian 大连 d lin
in Liaoning 辽宁 lio nng province
became Port Arthur


named after the Royal Navy Lieutenant named
William C. Arthur who "surveyed" the harbor
in the gunboat HMS Algerine
 










1864
  
 
 

End of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
太平天国 ti png tiān gu /
Taiping Rebellion 太平天国起义
ti png tiān gu qǐ y


Death of of Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全 hng xi qun
 
 












1866
Birth of Sun Yat-sen 孫中山 sūn zhōng shān




















1873
 
 

Birth of Liang Qichao
梁启超 ling qǐ chāo
 


 
Influential journalist, Intellectual leader
pupil of Kang Youwei 康有为 kāng yǒu wi
failed reforms










1875
 
 

Start of Emperor Guangxu's reign
光绪 guāng x
 

Guangxu 光绪 guāng x
- penultimate Qing 清代 qīng di
emperor











1886
 

Death of Ding Baozhen
丁宝桢 dīng bǎo zhēn













1893
 
 

Birth of Mao Zedong
毛泽东 mo z dōng
 


 
Founder of the People's Republic of China (PRC)
 中华人民共和国 zhōng hu rn mn gng h gu
A Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leader


























1894
 

Start of the First Sino-Japanese War
 


War between the Qing Dynasty 清代 qīng di and
the Empire of Japan










1895
 
 
 

End of the First Sino-Japanese War
Treaty of Shimonoseki 
马关条约 mǎ guān tio yuē
 


agreement that concluded the first Sino-Japanese War
China - recognizes independence of Korea
China - cede Taiwan, Pescadores Islands and
Liaodong 辽东 lio dōng (South Manchurian) Peninsula to Japan










1899

 

Recognition that oracle bones甲骨 jiǎ gǔ
were a form of writing
甲骨文字 jiǎ gǔ wn z

Wang Yirong
王懿榮 wng y rng












1901
 

 

Death of yng q yn 杨衢云 yng q yn

 



yng q yn 杨衢云 yng q yn
revolutionary together with
Sun Yat-sen in charge of planning
uprising in Canton











1902



Signing of Anglo-Japanese Alliance









1908
 

Death of Empress Dowager Ci Xi
慈禧太后 c xǐ ti hu





















1912
 
  Overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution
End of Qing Dynasty 清代 qīng di
  Last Emperor
 
 









1915-
 1916
 

Short reign of Yuan Shikai
袁世凱 yun sh kǎi
 洪憲皇帝 hng xin hung d

Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 yun sh kǎi
 
 



           

1919
May 4 Movement
End of 近代 jn di



















Year

Main Events
Key Achievements
Key People
Notes




































1927
 

Death of Kang Youwei
康有为 kāng yǒu wi







































1929
 

Death of Liang Qichao
梁启超 ling qǐ chāo

























1937
Start of the Second Sino-Japanese War
























1945
End of the First Sino-Japanese War






































1976
 

Death of Mao Zedong
毛泽东 mo z dōng

























1997
 
 
 
 

New Yuanming Palace opened in
Zhuhai 珠海 Zhūhǎi to commemorate
the original Yuanmingyuan that
was destroyed by the British and
French Army in 1860

























2013
 
 
 

Xi Jinping 习近平x jn png
assumed office of the
President of the People's Republic
of China